MOTIVATING EMPLOYEE THROUGH NON-MONETARY INCENTIVE

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY          
As a matter of fact, all activities performed within an organization are goal directed and therefore the creation of an organization also has a purpose. The initiators/founders of the organization have their own objectives in mind and intend to use the organization as an instrument to achieve those objectives. So also, every individual have goals for joining an organization. To achieve these goals, will be quite difficult without knowing  what motivate people to work. Any planning and organizing that will not or does not include adequate compensation for workers might lead to disinterest, frustration and boredom at work, this result to low productivity, high labour turnover, absenteeism, poor labour management relationship and counterproductive behavior can often have their roots dues to poor motivation of employee.          
The researcher is motivated to work on this topic because whenever a question is being asked on what motivated people or worker to put in their best to enhance effective output of an organization, the first thing that come into one’s mind will be through monetary measure. And since it has been the believe of maturity of people that it’s only through monetary terms that workers in an organization can be motivated, the researcher finds it interesting to find out other means through which workers can be motivated i.e. non-monetary means and which make workers to put in their best, willingness to work so as to enhance effective and efficient output of the organization in which they belong.          
Researching on how to motivate workers in an organization through non-monetary means is also interesting in the sense that the mentality of people will totally be changed from only the motivation through monetary means which usually leads to dubious act such as cheating, stealing, embezzlement, to maintain just a few that occurs in our organization today, with the intention of pleasing the worker so as to put in their best to the growth and achievement of the organization’s goals.           The researcher believe that at the end of this work, a prefer solution will be found which will help the top management of an organization to motivate their worker through a non-monetary means of motivation, because the money set aside for the motivation of the workers could equally be invested into the organization for growth and diversification.
1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM          
There has been a controversy among management scientist as to whether motivation has any significant relationship with workers performance. Therefore, there is a need for a research into the problems of motivation in respect to employee performance and some of these problems are;
i.         The causes of employees low performance in an organization.
ii.        What motivate one person may not be a motivator to another person.
iii.       An effort to provide a motivate not related to need would have zero result. For instance where a person wants a promotion and he is not promoted, it shows that his need has been frustrated.
iv.       An individual’s motives and needs are both complex and conflicting.
1.3     STATEMENT OF OBJECTIVES          
The basic objective of this study is
1.  To examine the obstacle to effective motivation of workers in the public service.
2.  To examine the various ways in which labour force could be motivated and the extent of incentive schemes in any organization.          
3.  To find out the effect of the various forms of motivational techniques that are available and how they can be applied.
4.  To come up with recommendation with a view to improve workers performance through motivations.
1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS          
The following are the research questions which may serve as a guide to solve the research problems. The researcher’s concern is to find answers to the following questions;
i.         Are there ways which performance can be rewarded satisfactorily apart from monetary reward?
ii.        How does money affect employees performance when use as the only source of motivation and where it is not flowing as expected?
iii.       Which non-financial factors motivate employees to increase their performance?
iv.       Why do some workers in an organization perform better than others?
v.        Are non-monetary rewards cheaper when compared to monetary reward?   
1.5     RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS          
In finding solution to the problems at hand, hypothesis have been formulated based on the researchers observations, where Ho stands for Null hypothesis, H1 stands for true hypothesis or alternative.
Hypothesis i
Ho:    Money alone does not motivate employee.
H1:    Money alone does motivate employees.
Hypothesis ii
Ho:   Job security and good working condition does not increase employee’s performance. 
H1:   Job security and good working condition increase employee performance.
Hypothesis iii
Ho:   Lack of promotion is not an obstacle to staff motivation
Hi:     Lack of promotion is an obstacle to motivation.
Hypothesis iv
Ho:   Opportunity to fulfill higher level needs does not improve performance.
Hi:     Opportunity to fulfill higher level needs improve performance.
1.6    NEEDS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY          
There is a great need for this study in order to find or identify the problems associated with workers performance and how problems affect the organization’s level of performance. The research work will be benefited to managers in choosing appropriate incentive scheme in an organization knowing its effect on motivation. In addition, it will also offer valuable drive to both students and managers in analyzing what exactly motivates workers to work enthusiastically and various motivation techniques that can be applied. Lastly, this research work will be useful to anyone who intend to carry out further study on this similar or relevant topic. This work will serve as good helping material which will provide other researcher with necessary and important information about motivating employee through non-monetary incentive.
1.7     LIMITATION AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY          
To carry out this research effectively, first bank of Nigeria Plc has been taken as case study. The research work of this nature cannot be conducted without being confounded with one problem or the other, this form the basis of limitation. The researcher face the problem of refusal of the staff of First Bank Nig Plc to release certain information for the purpose of keeping the organization’s information as  confidential. Financial and time constraints posed a limitation to this research work. The time constraint is as a result of combing lectures and tests with carrying out the research work. The financial and time constraints prompt the researcher to browse and consult textbooks for the purpose of obtaining more relevant information.
DELIMITATION          
This research work is focused on motivating employees through non-monetary incentive. Due to insufficient time, the researcher will restrict herself to Bida Branch of First Bank Nig. Plc. Also, the questionnaire shall be administered in this bank.
1.8     DEFINITION OF TERMS
Motivation: According to Cole, it is a term use in describing those processes, both incentive and rational by which people seek to satisfy their basic drives, perceived needs and personal goal which are higher to human behaviour.
Non-monetary Incentive: This can be seen as element of non-monetary payments or reward linked to working group as a result of prior recognition of meaning of work and the challenge of work to achieve sound motivation.
Needs: Needs are created whenever there is a psychological imbalance. For instance a need for food and water or when a human personality is deprived of either person who serves as a friend or companion.
Performance: This represents the pragmatic result that the organization is able to measure objectivity. Performance depends not only on the amount of effort exerted but also on the role they should take.
Effort: This referred to the amount of energy exerted by an employee on a given task. Effort is not the same as performance, effort is associated with motivation.
Goals: A goal is the result that one is attempting to achieve.

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