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THE PSYCHO-SOCIO EFFECTS OF SINGLE PARENTHOOD ON ADOLESCENT SELF CONCEPT
Although recent evidence implies linkages among depression or depressive symptoms , self-esteem, history of childhood abuse, and parenting. Children living in single family homes have different outlooks on life than children raised in a home with two parents.
The financial stability, psychological effects, emotional problems, low performance in education all take a toll on childhood when only one parent provides the attitudes, the evidence does not clearly elucidate the relationships among these variable.
The rising number of children who now live in single parent has led to considerable interest in the effects of family structure on adolescent development. Living with a single parent has been associated with children’s delinquency alcohol and substance use. Lower self-esteem, psychiatric problems, early initiation of sexual intercourse and learning school before graduation. A growing number researches suggest, however, that single parent family may different managing for African Nigeria.
Much of the research which has found detrimental effects of living with a single parent has be conducted with middle class peoples on the adolescent development research has found family structure effects that single parent at home hand a detrimental impact regardless of their person; cooper, pierce and Tidwell (1995) also concludes that living in a single-parent or step parent family is a risk factor for increased doing and alcohol use on the adolescent. Psychosocial outcomes and family process were compares that the higher marijuana use among youths living with their single parent and extended family adversely affects psychosocial development on the adolescent self concept.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Due to the adolescent living with their single parent has a detrimental effect on them most people find it difficult to expose some the social behavior.
Children who come from single-parent families exhibit significantly different social behavior than those from intact families. According to the Texas youth commission children with one parent are at greater risk of having impulsive, aggressive and anti-social behavior problems. This can lead to delinquency and possible criminal behavior, problems. A single-parent may not have the time to balance her responsibilities with supervising her child, according to author and clinical nurse Vicky. R. Bowden. Female adolescents living with one parent are more likely to engage ion sexual activity, smoking, prostitution, lesbianism and robbery, according to the institute for American values. This means a higher chance of becoming a teenage mother. Children of single- parents may also find it more difficult to form and maintain social relationships than children from intact families. A child from an intact family has a positive example of a relationship and has this basis to form solid relationship. The child of a single-parent does not have such an example.
School behavior: A child’s behaviour at school can be dramatically affected when there is one less parent in the home according to the institute of America values children from single-parent families skip school, cut class are late almost 30 percent more than children from intact families, with only one parent in the home, a child may have less supervision when it comes to staying out of trouble, single parent has to juggle work, home, finances and bringing up a child on his own which can be overwhelming. According to father for life. Org, 71 percent of high school dropouts come from homes without fathers.
Illegal Bahaviour: The texas youth commission states that children who come from single-parent families have a greater risk of engaging in illegal activity, this include using of illegal drugs and underage drinking if a child’s whereabouts are not monitored by parents, there is a greater risk of illegal behavior. A single parent who works full-time may not have the time to monitor her child. In a two-parent home, there is a greater likelihood that a child’s behavior will be supervised.
According to the institute for American values, a male teenager is more likely to be arrested if he lives in a fatherless home. Children age 14 and over who come from an intact family are less instructions procedure for the data collection and the statistical method employed to analyse the data.
likely to be arrested that those from a single-parent home.
Psychological disorders: According to the mayo clinic, teenager can develop a number of psychological disorders due to a lack of supervision, a lack of positive parent involvement and divorce. They are more likely to develop Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) anxiety depression and Attention Deficit Hyperactively Disorder (ADHD), also children are three times less likely to develop mental disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder and anxiety, depression ant attention deficit, if they come from intact families the risk of developing these disorders can also be high for children who come from a two-parent family where the marriage is troubled. But as children continue to grow they learn from walking and talking in their environment that is conducive, peer group, schools and be open minded by having strong moral character with good understanding.
On the single parent homes on the children which lend to affect the life style of the parents, families and relationships with other people, education enlightenment and other social activity, a higher stress home lowers self-esteem in children and parents, which can result in negative and unpleasant behavior of single parenthood on adolescent.
Financial support: Raising a child in a single parent home puts stress on finances, stress accumulated for the parent who is trying to manage a work like and a home life, and also for the child who may suffer from the lack of financial support for daily necessities and an absentee parent.
The self-esteem: In single parent families, self-esteem issues play a major role in a child’s behavior, children have lower self-esteem with a single parent than children who are raised two parents, the strongest finding relates that the mother-daughter relationship suffers the most, as girls formulate their world-view and confidence from the example of the mother.
Due to the single parent unpinning of the child especially the female children most of them end up having unwanted pregnancy (pregnancies) Ogunde (1983) indicates that most of the adolescent girls that become pregnant are those with low education, inferior self image and are therefore----------
And the socio-economic status of the family. Touliato et al (1978) examined that it is an important factor in the scholastic achievement of a child “a child when born is neither good nor bad but the home in which he lives shapes him. Right from childhood, parents are supposed to inculcate societal norms and values through the use of reward, to reinforce positive behavior, and punishment, to stamp out the undesirables behavior.
Maslow (1976) in his theory of hierarchy of needs and sequential development of man contended that man has five “basic needs’ which are hierarchy. These are, oxygen, water, food, shelter and love or sense of belonging.
A person that is denied any of these basic needs at early childhood grows up to be a mal-adjusted individual,. For the survival of a child therefore, the family is the only institution that can see to the satisfaction of these basic needs. These show the indispensable role that a family plays in the total development of an individual. If however, the type of family- structure that adults keep or the home they provide is defective, it could hinder th normal growth and intellectual development of their children. Consequently, his academic achievement will be defected.
Family structure therefore refers to the over-all make-up of a home as dictated and designed by the parents, and this has direct bearings on the child’s academic achievement. Also children raised in an intact family attain superior academic and occupational achievement, compared with children who were products of a disrupted family.
The educational level of parents also contribute to the behavioural maturity of children, single parents who do not have a full high school education result in lower wage earning potential and can suffer from a higher incidence of health problem, because of this children can suffer from aggression, depression and anxiety, as noted by author Katti gray from research studies done by Princeton University beginning in 2007, in her article “Broken Ties” from the journal Diverse, she claims that the higher the education in parents produces more opportunities for the child, and possibly contributes to better behavior moreso, single parenting and the economic struggles are often associated with raising a child in the society.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
To examine the effects of parenting in our society. Also comparing the academic performance of the child, factors on single parent, the self-esteem and depressive symptoms, parenting attitudes of low-income and single parents who have young children and young youth.
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This study will assist student, by single-parents by exposing them to many variables that may contribute tot heir poor academic performance, and behavior wise, it will help in awakening parents to their responsibilities and finish them with the necessary information in how to influence their children holistic development social and interpersonal relationship with their parents and peer group positively. It will also help the facilitators, academic authorities, and counselors or psychologist to have board knowledge of the problem of single parents and its effects on the psychological and social adjustment on the adolescents to assist them.
LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
The study causes on the influence of single parenthood on the psychosocial of adolescent self concept, the stud particularly revolves around two selected government ministry of education the researcher would have loved to carry out this research in all the ministry in Lagos State, but due to time and finance the researcher is limited to two ministry.
Concept of single parenthood. It is a situation where one of the parents is involved in the process of bearing and raising a child, parents are no longer readily available to take then full responsibilities over the child most researchers have shown how far reaching effects on the children and adolescent. Ogunlana (1999) stated that parenthood is a responsibility requiring the full co-operation of both parents who must ensure the total development of their offspring(s).
Structurally, a family is either broken or intact a broken family in this context is one that is not structurally intact for various reasons vis-à-vis death of apparent, divorce, separation dissertation and illegitimacy in which case, the family was never completed.
Conkline (1996) analysis become necessary because life in a single parent family can be traumatic and children brought up in such family structure often suffer some emotional problems, which may hundred their academic performance, on the other hand, children raised in two-parent family structure are often stable emotionally and they suffer less emotional problem thereby making them less anxious in their pursuit of their academic work.
However, situation should be noted that not true at all lines since there are some children still perform academically better than children from two parent family structure (Apia and Olutola 2007). This situation may however be attributed to other factors inherent in the personality of the child.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Family: This is a group of people who are related by blood or marriage and it consists of father, mother and children.
Adolescent: This is a period of life between childhood and adulthood. It is the transition period during which an individual outgrows childhood and develops into maturity.
Adjustment: A small change made to something in order to correct or improve it.
Broken marriage: This is a marriage that ended for one reason or the other and the husband and wife do not live together any longer they live separate ways.
Single parenthood: It is a situation whereby only one of the parents is involved in the process of bearing and raising a child it could be either the father or the mother.
Psycholosocio behavior: It is how one develops behaves and reacts in a social environment when they themselves may not be fully aware of their behavior.
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