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INFLUENCE OF PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT ON THE PROMOTION OF FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION
This study investigated the Influence of Parental Involvement on the Promotion of Family Life Education in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. The purpose of this research was to determine the level of family success in the promotion of the family life education and to assess the challenges affecting the family life education Five questions and hypotheses were stated for the study, the study employed a descriptive survey research design. An instrument titled: Influence of Parental Involvement on the Promotion of Family Life Education. (IPIPFLE) was used to collect relevant data for the study. The sample respondents involved were selected based on simple random sampling technique and the statistical tools was employed to analyse the data collected, frequency counts and percentage used to test the stated research question. Fifty (50) individuals were randomly selected from each establishment. The total sample is one hundred and fifty workers (150) individuals. 5 research questions and hypotheses were designed and formulated for the purpose of the study. The study revealed that there was a significant difference between parents’ involvement in family education and the success of family life education. It also revealed that there was a significant difference between parents’ occupational status and the promotion of family life education. The study further revealed that there was a significant relationship between educational level and their involvement in family life education. Based on the findings it was concluded 71% percents of the respondents strongly agreed that parents should be more involved in the promotion of family life education. The recommendations were made based on the findings of this study which include the following: parents should be involved in their children’s education, by volunteering at School; parent involvement theory and exemplary parent involvement programs recognize the value of creating meaningful partnerships among homes and schools in order to enhance parent involvement; act as teachers: Parents should create a home environment that promotes learning, reinforces what is being taught at school and develops the life skills.
1.1 Background to the study
Preparing individuals and families for the roles and responsibilities of family living is nothing new. Because knowledge about human development, interpersonal relationships, and family living is not innate, societies have needed to develop ways through which they may transmit the wisdom and experience of family living from one generation to succeeding ones. Some societies transmit his knowledge through formal means such as puberty initiation rites. For the most part however, individuals learn about family living in the family setting itself as they observe and participate in family activities and interactions in their own and other families
As societies change and become more complex, this pattern of informal learning about living in families becomes inadequate.
The development of new knowledge, advances in technology, and changing social and economic condition create situation where the teaching of previous generation are no longer appropriate or sufficient. In this circumstance, societies must find or create new ways to prepare individuals for their family roles and responsibilities.
Clark (2003) opines that when parents and family get personally involved in education, their children do better in school and grow up to be more successful in life. According to Clark, parent’s involvement includes a lot of different types of activities. Some parents have time to get involved in many ways; others may only have time for one or two activities.
Aluede (2000) contends that the earlier in a child educational process, parent involvement in family life education begins, the more powerful the effects. The most effective forms of parent involvement are those which engage parent in working directly with their children on learning at home. Parent may get involved in family life education by ensuring better school attendance by their children, increased motivation, and better self-esteem.
Although most parent do not to know how to help their children with their education with their guidance and support they may become increasingly involved in home learning activities and find themselves with opportunities to teach, to be models for and to guide their children. Parent participation in education was twice as predictive of academic success as family socio-economic status, (Uwakwe, 2000). When schools encourage children to the practice reading at home with parents the children make significant gains in reading achievement compared to those who only practice at school. The more intensely parent are involved, the more beneficial the achievement effects. Parent who read to their children, have books available, take trips, guide TV watching, and provide stimulating experiences contribute to student achievement. The more parents participate in family life education, in a sustained way, at every level-in advocacy, decision making and oversight roles and as home teachers- the better for children’s academic achievement.
The society depends primarily upon the family institution for the production of children who constitute young members of the society. Also, the family is seen as the primary agent of socialization where the norms and values of a society are internalized by the new members of the society that is children, teaching and behavioral pattern and ways of life. In addition, the family performs the functions of provision of basic necessity of life like food, shelter, clothing, education etc.
Arqqawal (1981) asserts: “It is the home not the school that determines the quality of the direction of any child’s life, and that teacher’s works is fulfilled or destroyed by the operation, for good or ill this major factor in the education of any child.” (page 19)
Adeyemo (1998) and Akinboye (2000) have observed that children from unstable homes have less adaptability to school situation, less initiative and possess a less measure of emotional self-control. The anxiety level of home and the pattern of parental communication with children may affect learning. For instance, a child that is frequently upset over parent quarrels are at risks for lower levels of education achievement (Krohn and Bogan, 2001).
Infants whose parents lack warmth and stability and fail to provide educational stimulation (e.g teaching and child new words) are at risk of learning and emotional problems (Werner and Smith, 1992: 24). Infants who suffer from neglect may also be at risk of health and developmental problems (Kenpe and Goldbloom, 2007:312).
In a study of young people from low-income black homes with varying family structures,
Clark (1993) finds that parents of high academic achievers set firm but not harsh rules, seek information about their children’s academic progress, enhance literacy skills through activities such as reading and word games, and model an optimistic assertive approach to life. In Clark’s study, the two-parent and single-parent families that had these attributes produced higher achieving students, while the two-parent and single-parent families that lacked these characteristics produced less successful students. Similarly, Goldenberg (2009) describes how assertive parent involvement may significantly influence student achievement, over the course of Goldenberg’s case study, the children who improved their reading skill received encouragement and /or home tutoring from their parents.
Preparing individuals and families for the roles and responsibilities of family living is nothing new, because relationships, and family living is not innate, societies have needed to develop ways through which they may transit the wisdom and the experience of family living from one operation to succeeding ones. Some societies transmit this knowledge through formal means such as puberty or initiation rites. For most part, however individuals learn about family living in the family setting itself as they observe and participate in family activities and interaction in their own and other families (Aluede, 2002). As societies change and become more complex this pattern of informal learning in families becomes inadequate. The development of new knowledge, advances in technology and changing social and economic conditions create situation where the teaching of previous generations are no longer appropriate or sufficient, in these circumstances, societies must find or create new ways to prepare individuals for their family roles and responsibilities. One of these new ways is family life education (Alueze and Ikechukwu, 2002).
The desire that Nigeria should be a free, just and democratic society, a land full of opportunities for all its citizens, able to generate a great and dynamic economy, and growing into a united and self reliant nation, cannot be over-emphasized; to achieve these goals, education in Nigeria is an instrument par excellence for effective national development Federal Ministry of Education (2004). With changes in the society, every child desires to become a millionaire within a day. It now seems to be difficult for majority of the children to really concentrate on their studies in this country. Good community committee (2005) observed that the seed of academic under-achievement among children have been imbibed from childhood. Many children fail to find self-respect or self-discipline and capacity to cope with problems in ways that are constructive or have any appreciation on the importance of skills needed for learning. In other words, it seems to be true that the causes of academic-achievement among the youths are multiple, complex and interrelated. Good community committee (1995) and Schewertz (2005) identified single-parenthood, poverty, youth v iolent (crime), drug problem, school instability and rebellion as causes of children under-achievement in schools. Sewel (2000) include among many other reasons for students drop out as no liking school, being suspended or being expelled. Other reasons include economic reasons socio-economic status of the family. Influence from friends who are also school drop-outs, personal reasons such as pregnancy for girls. In addition, school drop-outs had lower grades in school, more disciplinary problems, and lower rate of home work completion externalized sense control. Often times, when children fail their promotion examinations, they would rather prefer going to farm and obtain or acquire plots of land to plant cocoa and become cocoa farmers. During cocoa season in such parts of South-West Nigeria, children and parents’ common slang is ‘Oga teacher, how much is your salary? Two kilos (Kilogrammes) of cocoa will pay your salary. This local syndrome might be responsible for students drop-out in many rural areas. The rate of drop out appears to be worst among boys with the emergence of commercial motor cycling known as Okada. Also, some boys become bus conductors or illegal timber contractor know as ‘Payabayaba’.
According to Ayodele (2007), there was a case of a male student who was arrested for social ills (stealing) and during interrogation; he said that he dropped out from school because his school fees was not paid and his mother gave birth to nine children for different nine fathers. Ayodele says further that in the study of some female students, it revealed that when they fail in school or their fees were not paid, they seem to experience fear, anxiety, inferiority complex and guilt among their mates and this seems to give them some psychological problem. This leads female children to get involve in pre-marital sex and hurriedly get married.
Owuamanam (2002) contends that some people go into marriage when there is no money to pay school fees or take care of their children’s needs. Another problem observed to be rampant among female children is the issue of regular meeting. As soon as some female children see their drop-out friends with expensive wears and their babies, the next thing they do is to copy their colleagues so that they too can dress like friends and look nice among their peer groups, this usually results to termination of their academic career.
It seems that if parents were not educationally oriented, their interest towards the education of their children might be negatively affected. Adaba (2001) noted that parents do not encourage the education of their female children because of erroneous belief that investing money on the education of female children may end up to be waste when they get married because they lose family’s name and the husband’s family would reap the fr uits of their labour. Adaba also said that some parents were unable to pay school fees and provide necessary materials needed by their wards and that this contribute to children’s under-achievement in schools. Alonge (2003) opined that some parents are harsh and wicked to their children if they do not perform well or fail their examinations.
In another development, if children do not have a stable family life and have bad school experiences, they may end up as school drop-outs.
The true influence of children’s background on achievement can be estimated better if one takes into account those family characteristics- parental values and press for the child to achieve and the child’s own efforts and perceived efficacy-that appear to operate independently of convectional aspects of class (for the few countries in which these factors have been studied) and better indicators of the material and social aspects of class.
The national desire that Nigeria should be a free, just and democratic society, a land full of opportunities for all its citizens able to generate a great and dynamic economy and growing into a united and self reliant nation, is an important pointer to the role education has to play in the polity. To achieve these goals, education in Nigeria is an instrument per excellence for effective national development, Federal Ministry of Education (2004). With changes in the society, every child desires to become a millionaire within a day. It now seems to be difficult for majority of the children to really concentrate on their studies in this country. Good community Committee (1995) observed that the seed of academic under-achievement among children have been imbibed from childhood. Many children fail to find self respect or self-discipline and capacity to cope with problems
This background emphasizes the need to bring into focus the present study which sought to explain parental involvement, successes and challenges in the promotion of family life education.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Meaningful family involvement is a powerful predictor of high student achievement. Students attain more educational success when families work together to motivate, socialize, and educate students. Students whose families are involved in their education typically receive higher grades and test scores, complete more homework, have better attendance, and exhibit more positive attitudes and behaviors than children whose parents do not show care nor concern about their education and these lead to poor academic performance of such students. When parents do not motivate, socialize and educate their students their academic performance tends to be negatively affected. Research has provided ample evidence that parental involvement affects achievement in core subjects such as reading, mathematics and science, and the behaviour of students, their school attendance and their attitude and adjustment to school. According to Jerry Trusty (in Henderson and Mapp, 2002), student perception of their parents’ involvement and expectations are also highly effective and influential in their education. Moreover, students who feel their parents’ support for their education and have good communicationare more likely to continue their studies past high school. When parents show little or no concern about their children education, the students withdraw from school, perform poorly academically and may play truancy in attendance to school. The family size has a great role to play on the overall development and promotion of family life education and academic performance of the child in particular. The size of a family has a significant effect on interrelationship among its members but must be considered as only one part of a larger picture. The large number of children can have negative effects on promotion of family life education. A small family group enables a greater degree of democratic participation by all the children, something not possible in larger families. The small family rests upon the ideas of planning, individualisation, democratic co-operation, social isolation and intensive pressures.
1.3 Purpose of study
The main purpose of the study is to examine the influence of parental involvement on the promotion of family life education. The specific objectives include:
1. To determine the level of family success in the promotion of the family life education
2. To assess the challenges affecting the family life education.
3. To find out the extent to which the educational level of parents influence their involvement in Family Life Education.
4. To determine the extent to which the size of family affects the success of family life education.
5. To examine whether the occupational status of parents can affect their involvement in family life education
6. To find out whether or not the incidents of separation and divorce in families have any negative or positive effect on the success of family life education.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions are posited to guide the study.
1. How would parents’ involvement in family education promote the success of family life education?
2. How would parents’ occupational statuspromote their involvement in family life education?
3. Would parents educational level affect their involvement in family life education?
4. Would the size of a family (small or large size) affect involvement in family life education?
5. What extent would the family status (intact or non-intact) of a home affect family life education?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses will be tested at the 0.05 level of significance:-
i. There is no significant difference between parents’ involvement in family education and the success of family life education.
ii. There is no significant difference between parents’ occupational status and the promotion of family life education.
iii. There is no significant relationship between educational level of parents and their involvement in family life education
iv. There is no significant relationship between the size of a family (small or large size) and its involvement in family life education.
v. There is no significant relationship between family status (intact or non-intact) and the family life education.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The outcome of this study would provide basis for effective promotion of Family Life Education.
The study would assist to enlighten parents on the need to know and understand the effects of home background on the academic performance of children. Also, it would enlighten the adolescent as to the variables that would contribute to their academic performance in schools.
It will also bring about awareness for decision making bodies and even teachers to look into the problems facing teaching and learning in secondary schools in terms of the identified variables.
It would create awareness for schools the need to provide a conducive environment for teachers and parents interaction through the Parents Teachers Association (PTA) meetings. It will bring about awareness for parents after Parents Teachers Association (PTA) meetings the need for the parents to provide necessary facilities needed by their wards for use in schools. This study will create the opportunity and forum to discuss how home climate set-ups could enhance or hinder parental involvement in family life education.
Through this study, practicable solutions would be proffered to correct the unfavorable home climate in order to help the youth to live in a good and conducive home environment that will guarantee high quality education, performance and attainment. This study would serve as reference work and launching pad for further researchers on the extent to which the identified variables (parental involvement success and challenges) promote family life education. The result of the study is expected to provide the empirical basis for advising governments, policy makers, administrators, teacher and other stakeholders in the education system on how to promote family life education.
The study will provide basis for developing a more effective pedagogic theory for promoting family life education.
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This study examined ‘Parental involvement in the promotion of family life education. The major constrained was time, finance and mobility; the research was carried out in selected public and private institutions in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. This study was delimited to the Entire Members of Mothers’ Association of Regina Mundi Catholic Church (Mushin Dioceses), Members of Parents’ Teachers Association (PTA) of Eko Boys High School (EBHS) Mushin and Married medical Personnel of Regina Mundi Catholic Hospital Mushin.
1.8 Operational Definitions of terms
The following terms were operationally defined to reflect the meaning as used in this study.
1. Academic Performance: This is the extent to which a student is able to exhibit what he has leant. The tools used in measuring academic performance include examination, test etc. High child’s academic performance entails individual enriched education, skills and knowledge in relation to specific works, relevant to the individual and society.
2. Parent: is defined as a father or mother who is involved in the up-bringing of a child or children and for the purpose of this study, parent is taken to be a father or mother of a student who he or she stays with and is directly involved in the education of that child.
3. Home Background: Home is a place where one lives. As regards this study, home environment is where the parents and the children live which may directly or indirectly affect the student’s educational performance.
4. Environment: Consists of all situations or events people or things in one’s surroundings
5. Socio Economic Status/Background: This is the term used to summarize the varieties of factors which include parents’ level of education, occupation income of the parent and the social positions of parents in a community.
6. Family Life Education: It encompasses informal and formal training and education parents give to their children at home.
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