MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING IN SECONDARY SCHOOL

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION 
1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The concept ‘motivation’ takes its root from the Latin word ‘movere’, which means ‘to move‘. There is no universal definition for it, having been defined in different ways in literature. , motivation is the inner drive that pushes individual towards an action, for the purpose of achieving the target objectives.   It is defined as the determination of the nature and locus of the forces inducing the degree of readiness. It is  also defined  as  the energizing force that induces and maintains behaviour. From these definitions and others still in literature, motivation can be described as man’s driving force towards an action or the condition that makes individual to carry out an action. Motivators are things, situations, and conditions that encourage individual to perform better in an organization, which can be tangible or intangible. Tangible motivators are the physical objects/materials such as gifts and money. Intangible motivators are non-visible objects, things or conditions, such as promotion, commendation (written or verbal), achievement, regular payment of salaries, participation in decision making. The issue of motivator is relative, depending on individual’s priority in an organization. The concept of individual differences does come into focus while discussing motivator. It is worthy of note that what can motivate A to perform better in an organization might vary from that of B. Some individuals can be motivated by money and gifts. Money is thus believed not to be an end in itself but a means to an end. To some individuals, no amount of money can push them towards an improved performance. Every organization has objectives to achieve. The level of achievement of such objectives will dictate how the organization is fairing. It is not a gainsaying that teachers occupy unique position in educational institution.  they are the fulcrum on which the lever of educational system rests. Teachers need to be motivated so that the schools and educational system as a whole can enjoy their fullest contribution. Even though what can motivate a teacher for effectiveness in a school varies from one teacher to another.
The teacher is central in the teaching-learning process, being the facilitator, giver of knowledge, information, values, and skills for a child. The strategic position of teachers thus makes it imperative for them to be accorded priority and attention. In Nigeria, low status of teachers, has been prevalent, which is having serious implications on their performance, quality of their teaching, their attitudes to work/behavior in schools, the academic performance of the pupils/students, and ultimately, the standard of education. This research thus, considers the need for motivation of teachers as imperative in Nigeria. In the research, various strategies for teachers such as the provision of incentives, regular promotion, prompt payment of salaries, involvement in decision making among others, are  highlighted and discussed, for the attention of the stakeholders in education, the government, school administrator. It is however hopeful that the adoption and implementation of these strategies will ensure effective teaching in our schools, and a turnaround in the standard of education.
1.2  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The fallen standard of education in the secondary school depicted in increase failure of students in final examinations and decline in moral standards are pointers that much still has to done to in our secondary school education especially as regards the motivation of the teachers. The research intends to investigate the motivational strategies for effective teaching and learning in secondary schools with a case study of Onitsha south secondary schools
1.3 RESEARCH   QUESTION
1      What is motivation?
2      What constitutes motivational strategies for effective teaching and learning in secondary school?
3      What is the motivational strategies for effective teaching and learning adopted by Onitsha south  secondary schools?
1.4        OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1      To appraise the nature of motivation
2      To determine motivational strategies for effective teaching and learning in secondary school
3      To determine the motivational strategies adopted  by Onitsha south secondary schools
1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
To determine measures imperative for elevating the standard of teaching and learning in the secondary school   The study shall provide a source of information on motivational strategies for effective teaching and learning in secondary schools  
1.6      STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS  
1        H0   The quality of teaching and learning in Onitsha south is low
          H1   The quality of teaching and learning in Onitsha south is high
2        H0   The challenges to effective teaching and learning is high
          H1   The challenges to effective teaching and learning is low
3        H0    The impact of motivational strategies on teaching and learning in Onitsha south is low
         H1    The impact of motivational strategies on teaching and learning in         Onitsha south is high  
1.7      SCOPE OF THE STUDY  
The study provides an appraisal of motivational strategies for effective teaching and learning in secondary schools with a case study of  Onitsha south secondary school.
1.8      DEFINITION OF TERMS
Motivation: It is the inner drive that pushes individual towards an action, for the purpose of achieving the target objectives.  It is defined as the determination of the nature and locus of the forces inducing the degree of readiness. It is  also defined  as  the energizing force that induces and maintains behaviour. From these definitions and others still in literature, motivation can be described as man’s driving force towards an action or the condition that makes individual to carry out an action.

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