1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The word communication has a rich and complex history. It first appeared in English language in the fourteen century, taken from the Latin word communication which means to impact, share or make common. Bateman (2012), defined communication as the transmission of information and meaning from one party to another through the use of shared symbol. It is a well known fact that communication plays a coordinal and integrating role in the management of the affairs of any organization whether in the function of planning, organizing, staffing, leading or controlling. Communication is one of the primary areas for understanding human behavior, Rami (2010). Communication is an essential tool for management, which is used to carry the whole organization as a single being.
Communication is applied to all phase of managing. It is particularly important in the function of leading. Communication is critical for all level of human behavior man’s ability to think and transmit the thought through the communication process, provides the binding element for social interaction. The relation success or failure of human endeavor depend to a great extent upon the effectiveness of communication.
According to Drucker (2015), the management effectiveness depends on his ability to listen and to read on his ability to speak and to write. Unfortunately, the importance of communication has not been well recognized in business. It is generally believed that anyone with common sense can write. Most managers write to impress not to express. Effective communication is a fundamental aspect of job performance and managerial effectiveness. Communication is a vital management component to any organization whether the purpose is to mainly update employees on new polices to prepare for a weather disaster to ensure safety throughout the organization or to listen to the attitude of employees; effective communication is an integral issue in effective management.
The purpose of the paper is to recognize and discuss the significance of effective communication during the process of managing changes in organizations. The paper reviews the literature investigation the relationship between communication and organizational change. The advantages of successful communication related to improved efforts of employees to plan and execute strategies are also discussed. The paper also identifies the objectives and communication needs for each stage of the change process. Also, the various motives and benefits of organizational communication are discussed. The paper offers a change communication model which identifies different variables facilitating effective communication and finally ensuring successful organizational change. Also, it highlights the aspect of communication which has proven to be useful for successful changes in business organization.
In the uncertain and always changing times or any situation, communication is critical between leadership and its member. To assure a steady and meaningful flow of information, human resource leader can play and should play a strategic role in assuring effective communication is delivered in a meaningful two-way process i.e. sending a message and receiving a proper feedback. It has been observed over the years that effective communication has been a strategy for organization that has been performing well. It has ensured a cordial relationship between management of an organization and its employees.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Without doubt a high percentage of inefficiency and misunderstanding in organization can be traceable to inadequate and insufficient understanding of information. Since communication is said to be the nervous system of any organized group. Davis (2012).No doubt there are some problems associated with effective communication on organizational performance these include.
i. Poor listening and premature evaluation when people do not listen carefully to what is being said to them, this will in turn result to premature evaluation
ii. Information overload: When information is too much it will lead to misinterpretationiii. Difference in status and power between the sender and the receiver of information is another barrier to effective communication.
iii. Selective perception: people tend to perceive what they expect to perceive in communication, it means that they hear what they want to hear and ignore other relevant information.
iv. Attitude: This is the predisposition of an act or not to act in certain way. It is a mental position regarding a fact or state.
Clearly, if people have made up their minds, they cannot objectively listen to what is said. According to Katz (2010) he stipulated that the fundamental problems in communication arise from two assumptions.
(a) On the part of the speaker or writer
(b) On the part of the listener or reader.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Undoubtedly an effective communication in an organization is the strategy for enhancing and directing the performance of any organization in this present day complex and competitive environment that not withstanding the following questions will be asked.
(a) How can organizational performance be enhanced by effective communication?
(b) What is the impact of the environment on both inflow and outflow of communication in the organization?
(c) What are the major factors responsible for the difficulties encountered in the interpersonal communication between top level managers and lower level managers?
This research question will be answered in the objective of the study.
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The specific objective of the study is to determine and evaluate on the strategies of enhancing organizational performance through effective communication. The specific objectives of the study include.
i. To examine if effective communication affect organizational performance.
ii. To ascertain if organization environment affect communication
iii. To verify if communication difficulties affect various management cadre in organization.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
In this research work some hypothesis are formulated by the use of the null and the alternative hypothesis. For the purpose of testing. The null hypothesis is denoted by Ho, while the alternative hypothesis is denoted by Hi.
Ho: organizational performance does not depend on effective communication.
Hi: Organizational performance depends on effective communication.
Ho: Organizational environment does not affect communication
Hi: Organizational environment affect communication
Ho: A Communication difficulty does not affect various management levels in organization.
Hi: communication difficulties affect various management levels in organization.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research work will be of immense benefit to various forms of organization in Nigeria at the conclusion of this research work, both top and low level managers in Nigeria organization would be able to view communication as a means by which people are linked in an organization to achieve their common objective. This research work will be of importance to Nigerians because it would describe the various methods techniques and means by which effective communication as a strategy for enhancing organizational performance. More so, this study would produce an insight for top middle and low level managers in organizations in Nigeria to understand the on going: in the Nigerian business environment. The research work would be a useful source of materials for information, teaching and for future research purposes. Finally this study will assist in knowing the benefit to be enjoyed and derived that really emphasizes on the concept of organizational communication as a strategy for its organizational growth and performance.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research work is to study the effectiveness of communication as a strategy for enhancing organizational performance with regard to Nigerian Breweries Plc, Benin. The scope of this study is not intended to embrace in detail all that may have been required to develop the topic of the study because of its broad and its inherent difficulties associated with obtaining data because of time constraints – which will hamper a useful detailed development of the research topic. However, this study will be in terms of the population studied, here the unit of data collection will be taken form the public affairs community relation department sales department, administrative and human resources department. More so, the studies carried out so far are
(a) The reaction of top management staff to effective communication
(b) The process that can enhance effective communication in organization.
(c) How can effective communication enhance organizational performance?
(d) Factors that account for the achievement and failure of organization
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Our country is a very large country with well over two thousand companies. Therefore to carryout an aggregate study of the flow of effective communication as a strategy for enhancing organizational performance will be a tedious task and also time consuming. However most companies which constitute of the research sample have obviously gotten some other branches scattered in other part of the country. In view of these limitations, it would be practicably difficult for the researcher to get in touch with all these branches to collect data’s. Although the researcher would be able to gather information directly from the case study Nigerian breweries plc. Situated at Sapele road Benin City, Edo State.
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. Communication: is the transfer of information from one person to another
2. Organization: An enterprise/business entity.
3. Performance: The rate at which something works
4. Management: People or persons in charge of organization.
5. Top level Management: Refers to the heads of any organization
6. Middle level/management: This group consists of the personnel accountants and marketing officers this group is answerable to the top level management.
7. Lower level management: This group carries most of the information both to the top level and middle level management and they are referred to as the supervisory level.
8. Subordinates: are directly involved in coordinating the activities of management employees