CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND ITS IMPACT ON THE MANAGEMENT OF AN ORGANIZATION

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CHAPTER ONE  
1.0    INTRODUCTION
Corporate Governance is a number of process, customers, policies, laws and institutions which impacts on the way a company is controlled. An important theme of corporate governance is the nature and extent of accountability of people in the business and mechanisms that try to decrease the principal agent problem (Wikipedia, 2011). Corporate Governance also includes the relationships among the many stakeholders involved and the goals for which the corporation is governed.
In contemporary business corporations, the main external stakeholder groups are shareholders, debt holders, trade creditors, suppliers, customer and communities affected by the corporation’s activities. Informal stakeholders are the board of directors, executives and other employees. It guarantees that an enterprise is directed and controlled in a responsible, professional, and transparent manner with the purpose of safeguarding its long-tem success it is intended to increase the confidence of shareholders and capital market investors.
The World Bank (2009) states that corporate governance comprises two mechanisms, internal and external corporate governance. Internal corporate governance, giving priority to shareholder’s interest, operated on the board of directors to monitor top management. On the other hand, external corporate governance monitors and controls manager’s behaviors by means of external regulations and force, in which many parties, such as suppliers, debtors (stakeholders), accountants, lawyers, and providers of credit and investment bank. In the past, so many corporate organizations have been caught of getting involved in unethical practices, for example the discovery of financial scam by the Central Bank of Nigeria after the consolidation exercise, involving seven top bank executives in Nigeria, which puts the credibility of their corporate image under suspicion, which further shocking investors confidence.
Consequently, corporate governance mechanism has been a crucial issue discussed again. It is against this background that the researcher sees the subject matter; corporate governance and its impact on the management of AIRTEL Mobile Communication Limited, Kaduna main branch as an issue worthy of being investigated.
1.1       THE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In the past, so many organizations in Nigeria have been involved in unethical practices, which put the credibility of their corporate image doubt. As such AIRTEL Mobile Communications just like other telecommunication company have been constraint with issues arising from customer’s complaint of high tariffs, exploitation of workers by using contract staff as against direct engagement of workers that would be remunerated according to their condition of service. Previous researches into the subject have brought to light the poor governance of so many companies with indebted accounts in Nigeria economy. Their accounting systems did not reflect the companies financial status. A typical example is the financial scam of Oceanic and Intercontinental Bank after the consolidation.
Most management of such outfits were not accountable to stakeholders of the companies. Besides, the counts and the regulatory agencies were short of authority, corruption and kickbacks were part of the system in the companies. The poor governance practices led to the collapse of so many companies in Nigeria. Hence the need to study corporate governance and its impact on the management of AIRTEL Mobile Communication Kaduna main branch.
1.2       THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to examine the corporate governance and its impact on the management of AIRTEL Mobile Communication. The specific objectives are:
i)         To examine the effect of corporate governance on the performance of AIRTEL.
ii)        To examine the internal and external corporate governance control mechanism in AIRTEL.
iii)       To identify the systemic problems of corporate governance in AIRTEL.
iv)       To proffer workable solutions to the identified problem of corporate governance in AIRTEL.
1.3       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will be significant to AIRTEL Mobile Communication especially as they utilize the findings of this research in enhancing policy governance in their organization. The study will also add to the existing knowledge on the subject matter and will also be a reference material for further research on corporate governance.
1.4       RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Hypothesis 1
Ho:   Corporate governance has no significant effect on the performance of Airtel.
Hi: Corporate governance has significant effect on the performance of Airtel.    
Hypothesis 2
Ho: There is no internal and external corporate governance control mechanism in place in AIRTEL.
Hi: There is internal and external corporate governance control mechanism in place in AIRTEL.
Hypothesis 3
Ho: There is no significant relationship between corporate governance and the management of an organisation.
Hi: There is a significant relationship between corporate governance and the management of an organisation.
1.5       DEFINITION OF TERMS
Corporate Governance: This is relationship that exists between the different participants, and defining the direction of the firm.
Corporation: This refers to corporate entity or a body by means of which capital is acquired, used for investing in assets producing goods and services.
Shareholders: People who have invested in a company through subscribing to the company’s stock.
Board Structure: Management at the top comprising of board of directors.
Ownership Structure: Shareholders and directors. CEO: Acronym for Chief Executive Officer.
1.6       SCOPE  AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The study covers the examination of the impact of corporate governance on AIRTEL Mobile Communication. The collection of empirical data is limited to AIRTEL Mobile Communication Kaduna main office. The study covers a time from 2006 – 2011.
Limitations of study
1.         Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
2.         Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.7       ORGANISATION OF THE STUDY
Chapter one of the study lays an introduction for subsequent chapters. Following the introduction, the problem statement and the objective of the study which provided basis for the significance of the study and the hypothesis were stated. The scope and limitations of this study were also highlighted.   In the literature review as contained in chapter two, works of various authors, international and local journals were reviewed to elicit views on corporate governance and its impact on the management of an organization. Chapter three, research methodology, description of population and sampling procedure for data collection were discussed. Methods of questionnaire design, determination of sampling size and questionnaire distribution were also highlighted. Chapter four was based on analysis of data collected. This chapter was sub-divided into data analysis, hypothesis testing and summary. Percentage table, figure and narration were carefully employed for proper understanding and testing of hypothesis.   Finally, chapter five was divided into summary of findings, recommendation and conclusion.

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