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THE IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN RESOURCES AND TRAINING IN AN ORGANISATION

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 70  |  2447 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN5,000

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THE IMPORTANCE OF HUMAN RESOURCES AND TRAINING IN AN ORGANISATION

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY 

Business is becoming more complex and human elements remain an indispensable component of its survival. Training is a sort of investment from which an organization expect some positive returns. It involves the development or modification of behaviour of employees in such a way that they become more effective at their duty post. Flippo (1980) said that when employees have been recruited, selected and inducted, such employees must be developed to fit the job and the organization since no one is perfectly fit at the time of hiring.

Soetan (1995) also buttressed this point when he said that training is always necessary when requisite skills, attitude and knowledge are either inadequate or completely lacking and when performance deficiencies that can be eliminated through training are identified. However, training is often aimed at increasing productivity, improving quality of work, raise moral as well as development of new skills, knowledge and attitude. While development on the other hand, is a hand in a learning activity which is directed toward future rather than present needs and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance. The focus of development tends to be future manpower requirement and other growth needs of individual in the workplace.

Training and development are not synonymous. Training is the process of improving job behaviour of an employee in the immediate environment while development is future oriented often geared toward preparing an employee for greater responsibilities in the future. Effective management of change calls for a dynamic human resources development policy to ensure that each staff in an organization possesses requisite knowledge, skills experience and expertise for the performance of his task.

The Administrative approach is based on the number of employees to be trained in one year at a particular period. The needs of the employee or the organization is not considered rather it depends on whose turn it is to go for training and the number of staff the budget can take care of. Through approach, the employees are sent to improve their welfare either financially, academically or otherwise. The employees are sent for training for their personal benefit. In organization, a measure of polices exist as the employee interact with one another here, training selection is based on either or some of the following lobbying, getting rid of some troublesome employees and projection of individual’s personal image, is known as “political approach”. The organization development approach is usually adopted where the management cadre in an organization are made to attend training programmes as a result of poor performance of a unit or division as the case may be. 

In a systematic approach, the need of the employee is identified from the gap between his actual performance and the desired performance. Periodic performance appraisal can provide very useful data to identify these needs through systematic approach to training. It is preferred in profit-oriented organization because it is often job related and is directed toward the achievement of organizational goals. Training and development usually take two forms namely:  In house training. Off house training.

In-house training is usually carried out within the organization i.e. induction course, on-the-job training coaching programmes, etc. Here, the training is done in the normal work environment situation with the trainee using the actual tools, equipment and material that he/she will use when he/she is fully trained. Mccormick and Tiffin (1977) describe it as “catch as-cast-can” and on the other hand, off-house training takes place outside the organization, for instance management consultant and training institutions organized training programmes which employees attend as evaluation training. It decides whether training justifies it cost and whether it is doing what it sets out to do.

The main goal of training is to improve employee ability to perform specific tasks. Many organizations therefore spend a deal of time and money on training and development of their employees. However, management is worried about the effectiveness of training programmes in terms of contents, method usefulness and result. There are many approaches to training depending on the purpose it is expected to serve. These are: Administrative Approach, Welfare Approach, Political Approach, Organizational development Approach, Systematic Approach.

Boydel, C. (1971) has suggested the following ten steps as constituting systematic training process; identification of the occupation chosen as priority, examination of the occupation chosen as priority, analysis of the occupation, specification, selection, and appraisal of the people to be training, setting training objectives, planning of the training programme, implementation of training programme and checking / assessment of the training.

Budgeting for training can be described as a process for systematically relating expenditure of funds for training to accomplish its planned objectives. The main purpose of training budget is to have realistic estimates of funding necessary for the training services which are meant to be crucial to the achievement for organizational goal both in 

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