1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The growth of labor sector inevitably necessitates a definite relationship between union and management, this relationship broadly speaking concerns the continued existence of an organization in order to achieve the purpose for which it was established. The attainment of this goal is largely influenced by the type of relationship between the employer and the employees. Issue such as the determination of general condition of services, discipline, maintaining a suitable workforce, keeping production high, adjusting to technological change and providing welfare for workers are of paramount importance. The recognition of this interest not only formalizes the labor management relationship but also shows that the relationship between the parties can be sustained indefinitely. An employee’s participation in the affairs of an organization is largely determined and specified by the contract of employment. The major link between the workers and the company, there, remains what he/she gets in return for task completed within the periods stipulated. To assume a past in any organization or company automatically involves a workers subjection of his person to an infinite set of instructions and commands. This in itself is a power relationship embodying conflict and consensus after nature of task, values and rate of remuneration. In the light of the above that Whiter (1984) asserts that the employment relationship out of which industrial conflict arises. Industrial conflict therefore, has long been a central public issue on the field of labour and a subject of vital concern to managers and labour Unionists. A great deal of industrial relations centers around the resolution of conflicts, hence, it is believed that conflict is a permanent feature of industrial life. The issue therefore, is not one of completely eliminating conflict, but rather, it is one of accommodating and managing conflict effectively. To achieve this, it has been advocated that rather than the fighting approach to issues, a problem solving approach to decision making in industrial relations should be adopted. In any organization, there is bound to exist conflict of interest, however, each party has its own interest, aspiration and temperaments. For instance the management’s main interest within an organization is that of possible profit maximization, which means, it will serve to produce at the lowest possible cost, while the concern of the workers union is to secure and maintain the highest and best condition of service for workers. This kind of situation can lead to conflict. Conflict is a process, which begins when one party perceives that other party has frustrated or is about to frustrate some of its concerns or interests. Conflict is a state of mind, it has to be perceived by the parties involved. If one or more parties are not aware of a conflict, then no conflict exist. In any organization conflict are inevitable. Hence, sometimes conflict is functional in the sense that it improved the quality of decision, stimulate creativity and innovation, provides a way of airing grievances, releases tensions and encourages self-evaluation and change. These result are best gotten where conflict is managed well, but if not, it becomes dysfunctional, which means it will breed discontent, dissolve common ties, lead to the destruction of the group, retard communication reduced group cohesion, individual interest, supplant group effectiveness and threaten group survival. When such situation occurs and no proper machinery is used they can lead to strike, lock outs, disputes etc.
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