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Shortage of human resources is a research work, which aimed a examine the shortage of human resources in government establishment problem and solutions. This study was centered on ministry of finance and Economic Planning Enugu state. This research work has five chapters. Chapter one contains a general discussion on the shortage of human resource as seen by the different people it went further to state the problem to be studied, the objective of the study, significant of the study, the scope and limitation of the study and finally the definition of terms and hypothesis. Chapter two, a number of past related literature examined by other studies as to the shortage of human resources.  The investigation revealed that some of the cause of shortage includes withdrawal by death some lest service through retirements etc. Chapter three, deals with the design of the study, the methods used in collecting relevant date were primary and secondly method of sourcing. Chapter four, the researcher analysed and presented the data collected in the tabulated form.  And chi-square method (x2) were used in test of hypothesis.  Finally, finding were made which include the factors and problem associate with the shortage of human resources in government establishment.  The factors that lead to the shortage were as follows: Withdrawal of workers form service through retirement and retrenchment. Voluntary withdrawal from service by employees etc. The effect of the man-power shortage was as follows: Drop in the level of productivities. Decline in efficiency. Delay in the rate of work etc. In conclusion, based on the findings, the researcher also revealed that productivity is often affected adversely by the shortage of human resources and works are usually delayed so much. Recommendation was made based on the finding and conclusions; the following recommendations are hereby made. The government should employ enough and qualified man-power to fill the important vacant positions existing in the civil service. Government should equally minimize the voluntarily withdrawal from service by the employee.  This can be done by providing good remuneration and enticing working incentives from time to time to make them happy.





Many people with particular reference to the elite will be wondering why there is shortage of human resources supply.  A research in the area of this shortage of human resources supply will sound like asking an obvious question. To give the answer to the obvious question above I will start by emphasizing on the important of human resource in every economy.  Wental  French described human resources as a combination of all individual engaged in any of the organisation activities regardless of their levels.  From the above definition of human resources means men and women working for an organisation that belong or do not belong to the human resources.  For instance in ministries it ranges from commissioners to messengers.

Ministry of finance and economic planning which started during the creation of the eastern region, has the primary function of revenue generation through the board of internal revenue, treasury keeping the releasing of funds for the running of day to day business of the government. This ministry is experiencing shortage of human resources.  The investigation revealed that some of the cause of the shortage includes that the state government stopped employing man power since 1994, without having in mind that even those employed left the service through retirement, voluntary withdraw due to the fact that the salary is not encouraging, state creation, death etc. Mean while for any organisation to achieve some of it aim, must ensure not only supply of human resource but also ensuring that they are adequately motivated.  This is because any activities in the organisation from beginning to the end stage depends human resources.

From the above we can reaches that the goal of any organisation can not be achieve only by providing or ensuring adequate supply of human resources. Moreover Harish C. Jain for this reason said that it assumes that people will be motivated to perform their jobs effectively to the extent of which they are satisfied with these jobs.  The more one rewards workers the harder they will work. The greater the extent to which an employee’s needs are satisfied in his job, the greater the extent to which he will respond presumable with gratitude or loyalty, by producing effectively on that job.  Another way saying that although the task of motivating workers vested on the management team as a whole but managers has more role to play.  He said that managers has more roles to play.  He said that manager provide a sort of continuous day to day coaching appraised and encouragement that ever before.  He was trying to say the manager have upper  hands in motivating workers.  It was only when the manager works together with their worker that they will know and satisfy their problem for better result.

However the above is expected to be obtain in government establishment but revenue was the case and thus equally lead to the shortage of human resources.  Some interview with the government employees revealed that the government stopped employing as far back as 1985.  this continued till 1989 when the structural adjustment programme (SAP) was introduced.  This put more embargo on employment.  Therefore all the above including the one to be listed below cause the shortage of human resources in government establishment, retirement voluntary withdrawals without replacement, death, creation of new state in 1991 and 1996 contribution to the shortage of human resources in Enugu State than in the final analysis government establishment started to experience more shortage in human resources.

Finally, this research will the therefore be a contribution towards finding the cause and the effects of the shortage and some suqqestion on the best way to remedy the situation.


1. Finding the human research strength of government establishment in Enugu State with a particular reference to ministry of finance and economic planning (MFEP) Enugu.

2. Finding some causes effect of the ministry.

3. Finding out how and who supposed to build up the human resource of the government in the ministry.

4. Finding out in what grade levels there exist the human resources shortage  in the ministry.                


Smith and Brown made a opinion that goal setting is the heart of performance that is appraisal process, because it give many and relevance to appraisal and development activities.

i.   To let the government know that the strength of their human resource in Enugu State are inadequate.  So that when the department that are concerned will be adjusted, them the objective of the study will be achieved.

ii.  To identity the levels in which the shortage exist.  This will enable the government or department concern to know the exact levels where the recruitment exercise will focus on for quick action.

iii. Finally, to identify how and should build up the government human resources government as a body should endeavor to identify the segment of its establishment that is vested with the task.  The effect of identifying how and who is to advice them on some of the causes and effects of the shortage.  This is because it is only when the cause of a particular problem is identifies that some remedial solution can be suggested.  The solution be embarking on immediate recruitment of more human resources.


The significance of this research will include the following:

1.   Reduce unemployment – Unemployment is a situation where all the

able and willing men and women ready to work are not given an opportunity to work.  One of the reason of unemployment in Nigeria is mis-management of the available human resources.

However, some authors are of the opinion that the reason for the unemployment is because those unemployed are lacking the skill needed in modern business. LC. Hunter and .O.J. Roberson in their contribution said that the changing structure of labour demands towards more highly train workers means that those who are employed are usually not capable of filling the jobs in which shortages are much.

When this research identifies to levels where the shortage are existing we can then advice the government.  The advice will enable the (government) to start recruiting more human resource. Then the result will be to minimize the shortage, if not totally eliminating unemployment.

ii.  Minimizing the shortage and the suffering of the little employees

already in service. The significance of this study is to identified the levels were the shortage occur the advice the government to start recruit if the government recruit them, it will tend to reduce the suffering of the people already in business.  The result will be that the work done by a single person will be shared among other employees.   

Finally letting government be informed that it is now the right time, they will start to manage their human resources.  Leonard F. Sayles and George Straus said that management must provide orderly path-

ways downward as well as upward and seek to minimize the personal and organisation disruption association with cut back in employment.  This means that disruption in any business activities will be minimized if not eliminated when government will start to manage her human resources, which include: planning organizing, coordinating, directing and controlling her human resources.


The following hypothesis were formulated to test the shortage of human resources in government establishment, using ministry of finance and Economic Planning in Enugu State an example.

1.  Ho:    Understaffing has an effect in the ministry of finance and economic planning.

Hi:     Understaffing has no effect in the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (MFEP).

2.  Ho:    System of remuneration in the public service tend to shortage human resources in the government establishment.

Hi:     System of remuneration in the public service does not create shortage of human resources in the government establishments.

3.  Ho:    Workers who tend to be star are hardly seen in the ministry.

Hi:     Workers who tend to be star are seen in the ministry.


My case stud, Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning Enugu is made up of five (5) department which are finance and supply, personnel, treasury, plan research and statistics and library.  The scope of this will be limited to personnel and statistics departments. Some other limitations of the research includes.

i.   Finance – covering the whole four (4) department of the ministry of finance and Economic Planning of Enugu would have given us the understanding of the topic but due to lack of finance, it will be limited to personnel and statistic.

ii.    Time constraint – Time factor is another major problem on this research because there is little time on any hand to elaborate on the issue of the research topic.

iii.      Lack of information – for a research to be successfully there must be an availability of the information or data gathered in this research, because of the bureaucracy in the government establishment of which ministry of finance a and economic planning is not exempted. 

1.7            DEFINITION OF TERMS

1.  MFEP:  Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning.

2.  SAP:  Structural Adjustment Programme.



Brown and Smith (1977) Performance Appraisal and Human Development: U.S.A Rechard D. Irwin publishing company. Pp 12-20.

Hunter L.C and Robertson O.J (1969) Economics of Labour Wayes: Nigeria. Owerri Avan Global publication. P 120.

Leonard.R. sayles and george straus (1972) Managing human resources: U.S.A. Englewood cliffs NJ, prentice-hall inc. pp 112-150.

Ubeku Abel .K. (1975) personnel Management in Nigeria: Ethiope. Publishing cooperation. Pp 150-170.


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