1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to Pelage et al (1986) antibacterial activity is the ability to either destroy bacteria or inhibit their growth. This is significant with respects to the human body in preventing sepsis and skin infections. Also Derland (1981) states that medicated soap have the germicidal substance like chloroxylenol, Trichlorocarbamide, potassium, Mercury iodide etc. incorporated into them in order to enhance their antibacterial activity. These germicide substance are normally added in a specified amount and percentage of the substance used are always stated on the soap case or inside the leaflet which contains the information on how to use the soap for various purposes.
Anon (1984) states that soap may be defined as a chemical compound resulting from the interaction of fatty acids, oil caustic soda (alkali) possessing the characteristic soap like properties of detergents, surface tension lowering wetting and emulsifiying power and gel formation. Carboxylic acids with long, unbranched chains of carbon atoms are called fatty acids because they are formed form fats by a hydrolysis reaction called saponification. Palmitic acid is an example of fatty acid eg C15 H31COOH (Hexadecanoic acid).
All fatty oils and fats are mixtures of glycoside compounds (esters) of trihydric alcohol, glycosides and some fatty acid such as palmitic acid. The chemistry of soap manufacturing may be expressed by the following equation which is known as saponification.
C2H5COOH + NaOH C2H5COONa + H2O
Ethanoic acid Caustic soda Sodium Water
Anon (1984) further explain that abacterial soap contain existentially of the following 0.1 to 3% weight based on the total weight of the soap. 0 to 10% by weight based on the total weight of the soap in a compound of formular R – CO – N1 – CH2COOH.
Here R represent an akyl or alkene group.
Antibacterial soap is any cleaning product to which active antibacterial ingredient have been added, these chemicals kill bacteria and microbes, but are no more effective at deactivating viruses than any other kind of soap or detergent, and they also kill non pathogenic bacterial.
Most liquid hand and body soaps contain antibacterial chemicals. Triclosan is a common ingredients. Since there is a great variety of bacteria, effectiveness against any type of bacterium does not ensure that it is effective against unrelated types. These are generally only contained at preservative, level unless the product is marked antibacterial, antiseptic or germicidal.
Triclosan, Triclocarbon/Trichlorocarbamide and PCMx/Chloroxylenol are commonly used for antibacterial and deodorant effect in consumer products.
Some soaps contain tetrasodium EDTA which is a chelating agent that sequenters metals that the bacterial require metals and so it is actually an antimicrobial agent that is widely used even as a preservative, it appears to be fairly harmless in the environment. Sykes (2000) described sterilization as the complete destruction of all living. In medical sense it is often used in a restricted sense to refer to the destruction of pathogenic organisms only.
According to William (1979) wound is defined as description of cellular and anatomic continuity while its healing is the restoration of continuity. That biological process can only be accomplished by regeneration, cell proliferation and collage production which can be alleviated washing the woundsurface especially with medicated soap which due to it concert of phenolic compound help in keeping off organisms likestaphylococcus aureus Escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa always from the wound to a certain stage. Wound can also result when the operative barrier of the skin is breached by traumatic invasion or whether it is caused by trauma or internationally by surgery. The open area is susceptible to microbial invasion and once a wound has become infected pus form in the injured area resulting to wound abbess.
Baker et al described antiseptics as the most convenient way of preventing infection usually by inhibiting the growth of bacteria and most disinfectant when suitable diluted have the antiseptic action. Different method are employed for the destruction of bacterial or for getting rid of them and those method can be conveniently divided into chemical, physical and mechanical methods.
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