Select Currency
Translate this page


Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 75  |  829 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000



The antibacterial and phytochemical properties of the leaf, stem and root extracts of Phyllanthus niruri were carried out against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus. The identification of the isolates was done by standard microbiological techniques which include Gram staining and biochemical methods. The various solvents used include: hot water, cold water and ethanol and were used at various concentrations; 250mg/mL, 125mg/mL, 62.5mg/mL, 31.25mg/mL, and 15.625mg/mL. Antibacterial assay showed that hot water extract of Phyllanthus niruri root had the highest activity against Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. (32mm), while hot water extracts (leaf) had the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus (32mm). Ethanol extract (root) has the highest activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by ethanol extract (stem) and Salmonella sp.(32mm).  Disc diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC). Ethanol extract (leaf) had MIC 125mg/mL against Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus while Pseudomonas aeruginosa had 62.5mg/mL. Hot water leaf extract had MIC 31.25mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus. Ethanol extract (stem) had 250mg/mL against Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp.,62.5mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 125mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus. Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) was the same as the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC).




The use of plants in curing illness is as old as man (Grabley, 1999). Large populations of people especially in the developing world rely on folk medicines for the treatment of common infection as well as persistent diseases (Ndukwe et al., 2005). In recent times, there have been increases in antibiotic resistance strains of clinically important pathogens which have led to the emergence of new bacterial strains that are multi-resistant (Albinu et al., 2004). The non availability and high cost of new generation antibiotic with limited effective span has resulted in increase in morbidity and mortality (William, 2000). It is estimated that today,  plant materials are present in or have provided the models for 50% of western drugs (Robber et al., 1996). Many commercially proven drugs used in modern medicine were initially used in crude form in traditional and folk healing practices or for other purpose that suggest potentially useful biological activity. Traditional healers have long used plants to prevent or cure infectious conditions (Clark, 1995). Consequently, this has led to the search for more effective antimicrobial agents among material of plant origin with the aim of discovering potentially useful ingredients that can serve as a source for the synthesis of new antimicrobial drugs (Pretorius et al., 2003). Plants used as antimicrobial, are effective against infectious diseases while simultaneously mitigating many of the side effects that are often associated with synthetic antimicrobials. They are effective, yet gentle (Gill, 2007). Many vegetables are mainly consumed for their nutritional values without much consideration foor their medicinal importance (Aletor and Adeogun, 1995).

The genus Phyllanthus refers to leaves and flowers and is one of such medicinal plants and is still investigated for further findings. The flowers as well as the fruits seem to become one with the leaf. It is a wide spread tropical rainforest plant commonly found in coastal areas. It comprises of 600-700 species with minor distinguishing features among them.  Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus urinaria  and Phyllanthus niruri are the most employed species. Phyllanthus niruri belongs to the family Phyllanthacae, genus, Phyllanthus and specie niruri. Phyllanthus niruri has its common name stone-breaker (because of its strong root). It is commonly called “ENYIKWONWA” (the same family with ugba) by the Igbo’s in Nigeria. The stem and root have been reported along with the leaves to be of medicinal value (WHO, 2001). The latex form leaves has been used as antimalaria and for the treatment of infections of bacterial origin (Farombi, 2003).

Aims and Objectives

The aims and objectives of this work are to:

1.  Determine the antibacterial activities of Phyllanthus niruri

2.  Determine the chemical constituents that may be present in the extract (ethanol, hot water and cold water).

3.  Determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of Phyllanthus niruri extracts


Not What You Are Looking For?

For Quick Help Chat with Us Now!

+234 814 010 7220

+233 541 351 187

Here's what our amazing customers are saying

Emmanuel Essential
Kogi state University
I actually took the risk,you know first time stuff But i was suprised i received as requested. I love you guys 🌟 🌟 🌟 🌟
Very Good
Azeez Abiodun
Moshood Abiola polytechnic
I actually googled and saw about iproject master, copied the number and contacted them through WhatsApp to ask for the availability of the material and to my luck they have it. So there was a delay with the project due to the covid19 pandemic. I was really scared before making the payment cause I’ve been scammed twice, they attended so well to me and that made me trust the process and made the payment and provided them with proof, I got my material in less than 10minutes
Very Good
Gbadamosi Solomon Oluwabunmi
Swift delivery within 9 minutes of payment. Thank you project master
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.


  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on +234 814 010 7220 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.


How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: +234 814 010 7220

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!