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Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 75  |  811 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000





Citrus generally is one of the most important commercial fruit crops grown in all continents of the world.  Citrus importance is attributed to it’s diversified use and growing world demand. There is always an increased attention in bringing useful products from waste materials and citrus wastes are no exception suitable methods have been adopted to utilize them for the conversion into value-added produces the citrus peel are rich in nutrients and contains  many phytochemical that can be efficiently used as drugs or as food supplements. The peel of citrus (shaddock) is a rich source of flavonoids and many polymethoxylated flavones which are very rare in other plants.                     




1.1Background of the Study

Citrus generally is one of the most important commercial fruits crops grown in all continents of the world. Citrus importance is attributed to its diversified use and growing world demand with about 102.04 million tone total world production and probably stands first largest among the produced fruit (Ahmad, 2006). Citrus fruits are mainly used by juice processing industries while the peels are generally wasted. Since the juice yield of citrus is less half of the fruit weigh, very large amount of by products wastes, such as peels are formed every year (Dupont, 2002). Peel waste are highly perishable and seasonal, is a problem to the pollution monitoring agencies and processing industries. There is always an increased attention in bringing useful products from waste materials and citrus wastes are no exceptions. Suitable methods have to adopted to utilize them for the conversion into value-added products, for by-product recovered from fruit wastes such citrus peal (Shaddock) can improve the overall economics of processing units. Besides this, the problem of environmental pollution also can be reduced considerably. The citrus peels are rich in nutrients and contain any phytochemicals, that can be efficiently used as drugs or as food supplements too (Akinmoladum, 2007). The peel of citrus fruit is a rich source of flavonoid and many polymethoxylated flavones, which are very rare in other plants.The antimicrobial abilities of essential oil,among which citrus oil are also shown to be a particularly interesting field for applications within the food and cosmetic industries (Ahmed, 2006).It has been used as anti-diabetic antimicrobial, anti fugi and anti-hypotensive agent (Jagger, 2006).

Shaddock (Citrus maxima) is a large tree that has a round top with fuzzy twigs when young. Its huge leaves are ovate. The white flowers are borne singly or in bunches. The fruit is the largest of all citrus. It is globose, oblate or moderately pear-shaped with 11 – 14 section. The pulp is light coloured or pink and coarse with large, spindle-shaped juice sacks that separate easily from one another (Wi;lson, 2006). This tree is a native of southeastern china, where it’s groom for its fruit. In the citrus districts of U.S, it is cultivated as an ornamental tree and is interesting because of its large fruits. It is closely related to the grapefruit, but much less cold resistant. Shaddock was brought to the Barbados by captain Haddock of an East Indian ship. It bears his name in English speaking countries. Pummelo is another name for it (Kokafe, 2001).

Particularly, Citrus maxima, among other citrus, is crisp citrus fruit native to south and south asia. It is usually pale green to yellow when ripe, with sweet white (at time pink or red) fleshy and very thick albedo (rind pith). It is the largest citrus fruit, 15 – 25 centimetres (5.9 – 9.8) in diameter. And usually weighing 1 – 2 kilograms.

1.2Objective of the Study

Objectives of this study are:

To analyse citrus peel (shaddock) phytochemically. So as to know the content of the shaddock peel or what it is made up of phytochemically.

1.3Statement of the Problems

There is a doubt that the citrus peel (shaddock) has almost the same content as the juice, here leads to the study phytochemical analysis of shaddock (Citrus peel) to stop the doubt. But the fact remains that the peel content is the same as the juice.

1.4Significance of the Study

This study will help the populace to know the distraction between citrus peel (shaddock) and the juice base on their phytochemical content. Also to know it’s medicinal value.

1.5Limitation of the Study

This study limits on the phytochemical analysis of citrus peel (Shaddock).



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