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EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ORANGE SEED AND PAW-PAW SEED OIL

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 75  |  337 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000

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EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ORANGE SEED AND PAW-PAW SEED OIL

 

ABSTRACT

The seeds of pawpaw and orange are generally discarded. However, in order to make a more efficient use of pawpaw and orange, it is worth investigating the use of the seeds as a source of oil. In this work oil was extracted from the seeds of both pawpaw and orange. The specific gravity, iodine value, acid value, peroxide value, saponification value and moisture content of pawpaw seed oil were determined and the result are 0.85, 30.20, 47.12, 48.60, 79.38, and 0.18 respectively. Similarly, the following results were obtained for the orange seed oil; 0.47, 24.6, 51.40, 250.70, 194.24 and 6.43 respectively.

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0INTRODUCTION

Orange is from the citrus family, the fruit’s size varies with cultivars and crop load, but most often measure between 2.5-4 includes in diameter. The shape of the fruit is spherical to oblong, with a peel thickness between that of grape fruit and tangerine and it is either smooth or rightly pebbly. The presence and amount of seed, depends on the cultivar (Nwobi et al, 2006).

Papaya (carica papaya) is a plant that grows wild in many part of the tropics. papaya is important for its fruit and it is cultivated mainly for this purpose (Puangsri et al, 2005). It varies in size, most are oblong, globular or round, often five angled and narrowed at the tip. Inside hollow of the fruit is lined with numerous dark grey seeds. The seed of papaya and orange fruits are generally discarded.

However in other to make a more efficient use of papaya and orange, it is worth investigating the use of the seeds as a source of oil. The extraction and use of vegetable oil has for centuries played an important role in the manufacture of large number of industrial product and food items (puangir et al, 2005)

Kar and Mital (1999) reported that shear butter is a natural fat obtained from the seeds of the shea tree Butyrespermum park: the shea butter fat was extracted from the seeds with various organic solvents such as petroleum ether, n- hexane, chloroform and benzene. It is concluded that these solvents, particularly petroleum ether and n-hexane, could be used for the extraction of shear butter that is free from any oxidized fat and coloring impurities. Akpan et al (1999) carried out extraction and characterization of castor seed oil and reported that tested parameters which include specific gravity, refractive index, acid value, saponification value, and iodine value for both crude and refined castor oil product were of good quality.

Oil yielding crop plants are actually very important for economic growth of agricultural sector. The oil seeds containing unusual fatty acids are very important for industry, they can be used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics detergents, soaps, textiles, surfactants (Hosamani and Sattigerir 2000). On the other had no oil from a single source has been found to be suitable for all purposes because oils form different sources generally differ in their composition. This requires the search for new sources of novel oils. Several plants are now grown, not for food and fodder but also for a striking range of products with an industrial application (Miladi et al, 2007). The extraction and commercialization of those oils will reasonably enhance the profits status of most fruit juice making industries and encourage the sustenance of the cultivation of the seedy species of sweet orange fruits. The extraction and characterization of oils from fruit seeds have been carried out extensively, but not much data is available on the physio chemcial properties of the oil from the seed of African sweet orange, despite an initial attempt by some authors who worked on the seed of orange and closely related lime seeds (Nwobi et al, 2005). The chemical composition of the orange seed oil extract consequently gives a qualitative identification of oils and is very important area in the selective application guide for the commercialization and utility of the oil products. Fats and oil are also very important indigenous raw materials for many edible and nonedible purposes (Abbas Ali et al, 2008).

The medicinal values are antiseptic, antidepressant, antiplasmodic, anti inflammatory, carminatives, diuretics, choalagogue, sedative and tonic.

1.1  Statement of Problem

Orange seeds and paw paw seeds are normally discarded and assumed to be a waste product, but the oil from the seed of paw paw and orange has been reported to be useful in pharmaceutical industries, consumerist soaps, textile and detergent industries. These has promoted for a research work to be carried out on the extraction of oil from the seed of paw paw and orange.

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