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Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 75  |  372 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000





A survey of the plankton (fauna and flora) which habit the IMT concrete pond was carried out  to determine the nature of  eutrophication in the pond ecosystem. The faunalist population of the pond was mainly cladocerans, copepods and rotifers while the flora population included blue –green algae, diatom, Euglenophyta. From the test it was observed that flora outnumbered the fauna present in the pond due to the shallow nature of the pond. The flora helps to increase dissolved oxygen to decrease toxic gases in the pond. The pond could be graded as eutrophic due to the ration of flora  to fauna a which favour the fauna.   




1.1Background of the Study

Fauna are microscopic invertebrate animals that swim or drift in water. They are at the base of the food chain, feeding on microscopic plants and being fed upon by aquatic insects, fish and salamanders (Jhingran, 2002). Their sizes usually range form tenth of a millimeter to four millimeters, which is smaller than the head of a pin. Fauna are found in fresh water reservoirs, ponds and streams. They are abundant in Carolina bays wetlands that often dry in the summer and fill with water in the fall.

Most fauna are filter feeders, using their appendages to strain bacteria and algae and other fine particles in the water (Noreiga 2009). Others are predators, feeding on smaller zooplankton. Fauna can produce rapidly and populations can increase by about 30 percent a day under favourable conditions. Fauna reach maturity quickly and live short, but productive lives. For example adult females of zooplankter called Daphnia can produce their body mass in eggs every two to three days. Daphnia live an average of one month (Hepher, 2002).

According to Dutta (2001), flora are plants that live in water. They are part of the invisible world that nourishes the ecosystem. Flora include photosynthetic floaters in the water column. Since flora require light they are usually found where light can penetrate. Usually light can penetrate throughout the water column in a small pond, but this depends on the turbidity of the ponds. Microscopic fauna come in a variety of shape and invaried colours due to their different photosynthetic pigments. Algae can be unicellular and microscopic or colonial forming plate-like colonies, thread-like tubes or hollow balls (Boyd, 2003). Fauna is the base of the pond food chain. The green colour characteristic of fertilized ponds, called a bloom, is due to the abundance of flora. Flora (phytoplankton) is consumed by fauna (zooplanktons) which is eaten by aquatic insects and small fishes (Oglesby, 2001).


To identify flora in a concrete fish pond.

To identify fauna in a concrete fish

1.3Statement of Problem

Biological fauna and flora are microscopic plants and invertebrate animals that swim or drift in pond water. They help to increase dissolved oxygen and decrease toxic gases like ammonia, nitrate, hydrosulphide, methane, carbondioxide in pond water.

1.4 Limitations of the Study

1)          Lack of adequate fund

2)          Difficulty in accessing materials

1.5Scope of the Study

The scope of study is Biological fauna and flora of a concrete pond fresh filled with water.



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