Select Currency
Translate this page


Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 75  |  714 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000





The prevalence of urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis among adults in Usumenyi in Okpanku in Aninri Local Government Area Enugu State was studied. In this work, 50 (fifty) urine samples  were collected from six different groups and 50 (fifty) stool samples were also collected from another six different groups in Okpanku community. They were examined for the presence of Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni andSchistosoma japonicum ova using urinalysis to detect the presence of blood in urine, centrifugation method and microscopy. Also centrifugation, macroscopy and microscopy for the Intestinalschistosoma. The result revealed an overall prevalence of 31 (62%) as positive and 19 (38%) as negative for urinary schistosoma and 21 (42%) as positive and 29 (58%) as negative for intestinal schistosoma.  The prevalence was higher in males than in females with 23(46%) and 11(22%).Also was higher in age group 27-30 with 5(21%)  compared to age groups of 23-25 with 4(12%) for urinary schistosoma. Also the prevalence was higher in age group of 28 – 29 with 5 (23%) compared to 24 – 28 with 2 (9.5%) in intestinal schistosoma. Government should regularly disinfect ponds and streams with acrolein and copper sulphate, treat infected persons and protecting water supplies from faecal pollution by animal reservoir hosts (S. Japonicum). Destroying snail intermediate hosts, mainly by: using molluscicides where this is affordable and feasible.





Schistosomisis is a waterborne chronic human disease cause by parasitic flatworms called schistosomes. They live in the blood vessels associated with the intestine and bladder where they reproduce sexually. Schistosomiasis also known asBilharziasis is one of the most wide spread parasitic disease that put about 400 – 600 million people world wide at risk and has already infected about 200 million people. The diseases is endemic in 74 countries of the world including Nigeria, which is among the 44 African countries where the disease is highly prevalent (Ukpai & Ezeike, 2002).

Infections take place when large number of eggs are shed in the blood vessels of the intestine or urinary bladder. After rupturing these vessels, the eggs leave the body of the host via feaces or urine. When they get into water, they hatch into ciliated miracidia which bore into the tissues of certain fresh water snail (intermediate hosts). Within the snails, eachmiracidium forms spore cysts which reproduces asexually to give rise to cercariae (Raven & Johnson, 2003).

There are many known established species of schistosomiawhich commonly infect man through others,

These are:

Schistosoma mansoni

Schistosoma japonicum

Schistosoma haematobium

Schistosoma mekongi

Schistosoma intercalatum

But the three best known species are S. mansoni, S. jap[onicum and S. haematobium (Ukoli, 2005). S. mansoni and S. japonicum are the parasitic waterborne nematode infection that affects intestinal system and cause damage to the liver and intestinal tract and the complications arising from chronic infection are caused by a cellular reaction to the eggs in the tissues. By acquiring host antigens, the flucked are protected from host immune reactions. While S. haematobium is the blood flukes that affect urinary systems. All these flukes live in the blood vessels. Schistosomiasis has some pathogenical manifestation of rash or itchy skin, fever chills, cough and muscles aches at the early stage of one to two months. Some people, however, do not develop these symptoms at onset of infection (Ukoli, 2005).

Abdominal pain, diarrhea with blood, mucus and pus develop gradually as a result of intestinal schistosomiasis. These symptoms are caused by the body’s reaction to the presence of the worms. People are affected when swimming or are engaged in occupational activities like washing, fishing, rice farming and irrigation project in fresh water body infected with cercariae. The availability of the appropriate snail intermediate hosts helps in the spread of the disease because the miracidia cannot penetrate human skin directly without undergoing some development in the snail host (Raven & Johnson, 2003).


Not What You Are Looking For?

For Quick Help Chat with Us Now!

+234 814 010 7220

+233 541 351 187

Here's what our amazing customers are saying

Emmanuel Essential
Kogi state University
I actually took the risk,you know first time stuff But i was suprised i received as requested. I love you guys 🌟 🌟 🌟 🌟
Very Good
Azeez Abiodun
Moshood Abiola polytechnic
I actually googled and saw about iproject master, copied the number and contacted them through WhatsApp to ask for the availability of the material and to my luck they have it. So there was a delay with the project due to the covid19 pandemic. I was really scared before making the payment cause I’ve been scammed twice, they attended so well to me and that made me trust the process and made the payment and provided them with proof, I got my material in less than 10minutes
Very Good
Gbadamosi Solomon Oluwabunmi
Swift delivery within 9 minutes of payment. Thank you project master
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.


  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on +234 814 010 7220 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.


How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: +234 814 010 7220

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!