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AN EVALUATION OF GROUP BEHAVIOUR FOR ORGANISATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1      BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY  A group consist of people who have a sense of relatedness as a result of interaction with each other. Not every collection of individuals is a group as the term is used by sociologists. Actually, we can distinguish three different collections of people; aggregations, categories, and groups. An aggregations, categories, and groups. An aggregation is any number of people who are in close proximity to one another at a given time. While a category is any number of people who have some particular attributes in common. Groups  can be classified by content of function , by degree of personal involvement , and by degree of organization. Group properties consist of status norms, role, socialization,  and power. Consumers conformity can be shaped by three different types of reference group influences; informational, normative and identification. It is important   to distinguish among these types, since the marketing strategy required depends on the type of influence involved. Informational influence; Informational influence occurs when an individual uses the behaviours and opinions of reference group members as potentially useful bits of information. This influence is based on either the similarity of the group members to the individual or the expertise of the influencing group member. Thus a person may notice several members of a given group using a particular brand of coffee,  he or she may then decide To try that brand simply because there is evidence that it may be a  good brand. Or one may decide to purchase a particular brand model of computer because of friend who is very knowledge able about computers owns or recommend it. In this case conformity is the result of information shared by the group members Normative influence; Normative influence sometimes referred to ask utilitarian influence, occurs when an individual fulfills group expectations to gain.
A direct reward or to avoid a sanction. One may  purchase a particular brand of clothing to win approval from your colleagues. Or you may refrain from wearing the latest fashion for fear for teasing by friends. The essence of normative influence is the presence of a direct reward or sanction. Identification influence; Identification influence also called value  expressive  influence occurs when individuals have internalized  the groups values and norms.These then guide the individuals behavior without any thought of reference group sanctions or rewards. The individual has accepted the groups value as his or her own. The individual behaves in a manner consistent with the groups values because the individuals values and the groups values are the same. The research therefore seek to provide an  evaluation    of group   behavior for organizational effectiveness and efficiency.
1.2      STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
A group consist of people who have a sense of relatedness as a result of interaction with each other. Understanding of group and their functioning is pivotal to providing the right goods and services that meet their needs. Many addictions to purchases are influenced by group members and so many decisions made  are influence by group. The increasing nature of group influences is exacting negative impact on patronage of goods and services by it is not properly understood and addressed, many organisations do not understand the group influences in their chosen field of business. As such they lack the capacity. To relate nor exact positive actions from them. Therefore the problem confronting this research is to provide an evaluation of group behavior for organizational effectiveness and efficiency with a case study of  NTA.
1.3    RESEARCH   QUESTIONS
1.     What is the nature of group behavior and its effect on organizational  effectiveness and efficiency?
2.     What is the nature and effect of group behavior on the effectiveness and efficiency of NTA?
1.4      OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH
1.  To determine the nature and effect of group behavior on organizational effectiveness and efficiency.
2.  To determine the nature and effect of group of behavior on  the effectiveness and efficiency of NTA.
1.5      SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study shall determine the nature and effect of group behavior on the performance of the organization. It shall also serve as a source of information to managers and institutions.
1.6      STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
1       Ho   Group behavior is not significant in NTA      
         Hi     Group behavior is significant in NTA  
2       Ho   Organizational effectiveness and efficiency in NTA is low
         Hi     Organizational effectiveness and efficiency in NTA is high  
3       Ho   Effect of group behavior on NTA effectiveness and efficiency is low.
         Hi     Effect of group behavior on NTA effectiveness and efficiency is high
1.7   SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study focuses on the appraisal of  group behavior and effect on the effectiveness and efficiency of  the organization
1.8   DEFINITION OF TERMS
GROUP DEFINED A group consist of people who have a sense of relatedness as a result of interaction with each other. Not every collection of individuals is a group as the term is used by sociologists
AGGREGATION An aggregation is any number of people who are in close proximity to one another at a given time.
CATEGORY While a category is any number of people who have some particular attributes in common.
NORMATIVE INFLUENCE Normative influence sometimes referred to asd utilitarian influence, occurs when an individual fulfills group expectations to gain A direct reward or to avoid a sanction. One may  purchase a particular brand of clothing to win approval from your colleagues. Or you may refrain from wearing the latest fashion for fear for teasing by friends. The essence of normative influence is the presence of a direct reward or sanction
IDENTIFICATION INFLUENCE Identification influence also called value expressive influence occurs when individuals have internalized the groups values and norms .These then guide the individuals behavior without any thought of reference group sanctions or rewards. The individual has accepted the groups value as his or her own. The individual behaves in a manner consistent with the groups values because the individuals values and the groups values are the same.                        

REFERENCES

Ayuba B. (2005) marketing; principles and management, kaduna shukrah printing.
David Land Albert J. and Kenneth A. (2001) consumer behaviour; building marketing strategy, New York.
Edward j.and william j. (1963); fundamentals of marketing; new york, mcgraw hill, inc
Erica, Linda P, George Z (2002); consumer, new york mcgraw hill irwin. Geoff r, (1988); modern industrial marketing; new york; mcgraw- hill, inc.

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