1.1 Background of the Study
The management of information technology plays a crucial role, especially in the communication and information sectors such as government establishments, where they build their competitive advantage on credibility and information. Every aspect of management in the modern age relies heavily on information to thrive. Nothing moves without information and it is generally believed that information is power and that he who has it has power. It has even been described as a singular resource needed to develop other resources, including workers in an organization. That is why Odger and Keeling (2000) deduced that one way businesses meet information needs is to use Management Information System (MIS). One approach by which organization can utilize company’s capability is through the development of Management Information System (MIS). There is no universally accepted definition of Management Information System (MIS) and those that exist reflect the emphasis and perhaps prejudice of their authors. However, the term “Management Information System” (MIS) can be seen as a database management system tailored to the needs of managers or decision makers in an organization. MIS is a system using formalized procedures to provide management at all levels in all functions with appropriate information based on data from both internal and external sources, to enable them to make timely and effective decisions for planning, directing and controlling the activities for which they are responsible Argyris (1991). It should be noted from the above definition that the emphasis is on the uses to which the information is put. Planning, directing and controlling are the essential ingredients for “Management”. In essence, the processing of data, information, and communicating the resulting information directly to the user, is the key function of MIS. It should, therefore, be noted that MIS exists in organizations in order to help them achieve objective to plan and control their processes and operations, to help deal with the uncertainties, and to help in adopting changing or indeed initiating change. Essentially, therefore, information has become a critical resource, just like energy, both of which are vital to the wellbeing of individuals and organizations in the modern world. Like energy and politics, technology is changing the ways in which information is captured, processed, stored, disseminated and used augured by Charles (2002). Management Information System (MIS) is generally thought of as an integrated, user-machine system providing information to support operations, management and decision-making function in an organization Abdullahi (2004). As a matter of fact, MIS is a special purpose system useful for management in an organization. MIS is an accessible and rapid conveyor belt for appropriate high quality information from the generation to its users. The heart of an effective MIS, therefore, is a carefully conceived, designed and executed database. Its level corresponds to adaptive decisions. As a result, Management Information System (MIS) enhances the administrative process and the operations and decision-making powers of an organization. This explains why standard and digitalized information processing devices such as the computer, word processing and inter-net are highly welcome by organizations across the world. Kotler (2006) in a simpler manner defines Management Information System (MIS) “as a planned system of the collecting, processing, storing and dissemination of data in the form of information needed to carry out the functions of management. In a way it is a documented report of the activities that were planned and executed”. In other words, Management Information System (MIS) is an integrated user machine system for providing information to support the operation of management analysis and decision making function, which utilizes computer hardware’s and software’s as well as manual application for its procedures. Despite the utilization of Management Information System (MIS) in its various forms there still seems to be some problems that infringe on the effectiveness of decision-making by managers and the productivity of employees in an organization. This includes issues bordering on monitoring the system perhaps as a result of limited numbers of departmental managers and supervisors or their exit and also non-qualitative factors like morale of workers, attitudes of workers to work as well as the lack of flexibility of Management Information System (MIS) to update itself, thus calling for an investigation to provide needed balance Akinola (2003). Management Information System (MIS) seeks to know the motive for work and to find ways by which their realization can be helped and encouraged. This service has a dynamic aspect of management Saogy (1989).
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