Select Currency
Translate this page


Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 75  |  1595 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000





Field studies were carried out on outcropping sediments exposed in Lokoja and its environs to gain insight into reservoir characteristics and sedimentological characteristics. Sieve analysis and petrographic analysis were carried out on fresh samples of the sediments to determine their statistical parameters, paleodepositinal environment and their reservoir quality. Granulometric analysis of the Filele sands reveals that the sediments are medium to coarse, moderate to poorly sorted, near symmetrical to positively skewed and mainly leptokurtic, While the granulometric analysis of the Mount Patti sands reveals that the sediments are fine to medium, well sorted to moderate sorting, negatively skewed to positively skewed and mesokurtic to leptokurtic. The petrographic analysis of the Filele sands reveals that the sediments consist averagely of 78% Quartz, 17% Feldspar, and 5% Rock fragment, while the Mount Patti sands consist of 90% Quartz, 6% Feldspar, and 4% Rock Fragment. Ternary diagram also reveals that the sediments are mainly sub-arkose. The average mineralogical maturity index (IMM) for the Filele sands is 3.8 indicative of sub-maturity, while the Patti sands with 11.7 maturity index are indicative of mature sands. Using Field evidences and Bivariate plots of skewness versus sorting and mean versus sorting, a fluvial depositional setting was interpreted for the sediments.




Sandstones are sedimentary rocks formed by the cementation of sediment by material cements and they show a great deal of variation in mineral composition, degree of sorting and roundness and they possess quality reservoir characteristics and mineralogy. Sedimentological studies help to determine sediment characteristics of the rocks (sorting, sedimentary structures, grain size, shape, lithology, porosity, texture, maturity etc.). Similarly, petrographic studies are very useful in understanding and interpreting the mineralogical (petrographic) details of rocks – their composition, abundance, and morphology among others. Together, sedimentology and petrography are widely used in the reconstruction of the geological history of rocks – their distances from provenance, paleoenvironmental and conditions of formation and/or deformation, diagenetic processes acting on rocks, tectonic history as well as the stratigraphy.

The need to combine sedimentological and petrographic analyses for paleoenvironmental analyses is borne out of the fact that relying on textural analysis alone may result in gross interpretational errors, especially if diagenetic or disaggregation processes have significantly altered textural properties of such sediments (Wilson and Pittman, 1979).

 The sedimentological investigation of some outcropping sediment in southern Bida basin and its environs employed the field mapping and the laboratory studies approach of the sediments sampled and it was used in deducing the porosity and permeability of the outcropping sediments in the study area.

This study involves the determination of the lithology, mineralogy and textural characteristics of the sandstone facies in order to predict the reservoir quality of the sandstone using Sedimentological and petrographic data as obtained from field evidence of some outcropping sediment of southern Bida basin and its environs.


This study is aimed at investigating the Sedimentological and petrographic attributes of outcropping sediments in Lokoja and its environs.

The objectives of this study include:

i. To determine the lithofacies characteristics of the sediments of the study area;

ii. To ascertain the mineralogical composition of the sediments;

iii. To determine the paleodepositional environment in which the sediments where formed using available sedimentological and petrographic data sets; and

iv. To characterize the reservoir properties of the sediments by inferring the porosity and quantitatively determine the permeability.


The study area is located in Kogi State. It is bounded by latitudes 070 30’ N - 080 30’ N and longitude 006000’E- 0070 00’ E. The area visited include outcrops on road cuts along the Lokoja-Abuja Express Road and include; Filele and Mount Patti.

The study area was accessible by main roads and footpaths. The main is the Lokoja-Abuja express road [(fig. 1)Ojo, 2009].

Figure 1 Geologic map of Southern Bida basin showing (Ojo, 2009).


The River Niger is present in the study area as the main hydrological element. The Niger River runs in an ESE direction in the southern marginal area/part of the basin. Its floodplain is broad and locally up to 20km wide and marked in most areas by a series of elongated ponds running parallel to the river channel. The main tributaries of the River Niger are River Kaduna (wuya) and Gurara which drain the Northern Nigeria Basement Complex.

The area of study has various elevations above sea level as recorded by GPS and shown below:

Filele (169m), Mount Patti (255m) and Agbaja plateau (407m).


The study area has an average maximum temperature of 33.20C and an average minimum temperature of 22.80C. It is generally hot throughout the year with an average relative humidity of 68-70 percent. The study area has two distinct weathers, dry and wet seasons. The dry season occurs between November and February while the rainy season is between March and October.

The vegetation type in the study area is Guinea savanna or parkland savanna with tall grasses interspersed shrubs and some trees. The shrubs shed their leaves during the dry seasons in order to withstand some amount of drought. Apart from shedding of leaves, some shrubs have stems with thick bark, thick leaves etc. as adaptive features by the trees or shrubs in low rainfall regions to check excessive transpiration.       


The study area is the headquarters of Kogi state with various settlements ranging from mainly urban to rural. Main towns in the study area include Ahoko, Kotonkarfi, Idu and Ozi. The main occupation of the residents is Agriculture. Trade and other cottage industries are also common in the area.


This study is focused on determining the reservoir quality from the sedimentological and petrographic attributes of outcropping sediment in Lokoja and its environs in southern Bida basin.

The scope of this study includes:

I.       Field Mapping and sample collection of outcropping sediments in the study area.

II.    Laboratory studies involving sedimentological and petrographic analyses of collected samples

III. Quantitative determination of permeability of the sediments.

IV. Determination of provenance; and

V. Interpretation of results


The Campanian Maastrichtian Lokoja Formation, which is chiefly, if not wholly, non-marine clastics, comprises of conglomerates, massive, pebbly to coarse grained sandstones, claystones, siltstones, ironstones and lateritic capping (Adeleye, 1971, 1973 and Braide 1992). Lokoja sandstone is the oldest formation in the Southern Bida Basin being  90-280m thick, overlain by 70-100m thick Maastritichian Patti Formation and about  5-20m thick of Agbaja ironstones overlaying the middle Patti Formation (Braide,1992, Ladipo 1994). Lokoja sub-basin of the Bida Basin is a NW-SE shallow, downwarped trough which resulted from the wrench fault movement associated with the tectonic framework of the Nigerian sedimentary basins (Jones, 1953 and Braide, 1992) which was filled with Campanian-Maastritichian sediments as confirmed by the palaeontological and sedimentological studies (Ojo, 1992, Abimbola 1993). Alluvial fans and deltaic facies that interfinger with lacustrine facies provide an amount of reservoir quality for the formation.  

The alternating sandstone and conglomeratic facies of the Lokoja Formation indicate fluvial sediment dominated by mass flow and bed-load deposits within an alluvial and braided stream complex (Braide, 1992; Akande et al., 2006). The immature clast to matrix supported conglomerates are interpreted as debris flow deposit, similar to the poorly sorted conglomerates interpreted as gravity induced alluvial fans of the Upper Benue Trough (Nwajide, 1980). Interbedded sandstones probably represent braided stream channel deposits whereas the claystones are probably flood plain deposits (Pettijohn, 2004). The massive matrix supported conglomerate corresponds to a debris flow in an alluvial fan setting. The conglomeratic unit with graded bedded is interpreted as an abandoned channel deposit. The alternating conglomerates and sandstones of the Lokoja Formation in the lower part of the section reflect continental deposition influenced largely by alluvial and braided stream processes (Akande et al., 2006). The stratified nature of the shales and sandstones provides likely favourable pathways for migration of fluids into potential reservoir rocks made up mainly of fluvial, shelf and flood plain sandstones in the Lokoja and the Patti formation (Obaje, et al. 2011). Outcrop studies have been used by Osokpor et al., (2013), to determine the sequence stratigraphy and environment of deposition for the Bida Basin, and inferred that the Lokoja Formation enabled the discrimination of various subfacies formed in continental paleodepositional settings of dominantly fluvial systems during the Late Cretaceous out-building of sedimentary sequences in the Southern Middle Niger Basin and signaled as lowstand systems tract architecture. The relatively well-sorted sandstones unit of the tidally influenced facies of the Patti Formation has been observed as better characterized reservoir rock compared to the fluvial Lokoja sandstones with the prevalence of alluvial fans, containing poorly sorted massive conglomeratic sandstone, matrix supported conglomerate [(fig, 2), Omali, et al., 2011], proximal to the basement. These continental alluvial fans with obvious clogging of the pore throats by clays and clay-filled minerals will be responsible for the inferred reduced porosity and permeability in the Lokoja sandstone than in the tidally influenced facies (obvious from observed herringbone and cross-stratifications) of the Patti Formation which may provide better reservoir possibilities at greater depths (Obaje, et al., 2011).

Figure 2 Lithologic section of the Lokoja Formation at Filele along Lokoja – Abuja Highway (Omali, et al.,2011).


Not What You Are Looking For?

For Quick Help Chat with Us Now!

+234 814 010 7220

+233 541 351 187

Here's what our amazing customers are saying

Emmanuel Essential
Kogi state University
I actually took the risk,you know first time stuff But i was suprised i received as requested. I love you guys 🌟 🌟 🌟 🌟
Very Good
Azeez Abiodun
Moshood Abiola polytechnic
I actually googled and saw about iproject master, copied the number and contacted them through WhatsApp to ask for the availability of the material and to my luck they have it. So there was a delay with the project due to the covid19 pandemic. I was really scared before making the payment cause I’ve been scammed twice, they attended so well to me and that made me trust the process and made the payment and provided them with proof, I got my material in less than 10minutes
Very Good
Gbadamosi Solomon Oluwabunmi
Swift delivery within 9 minutes of payment. Thank you project master
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.


  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on +234 814 010 7220 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.


How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: +234 814 010 7220

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!