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EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL AS A STRATEGY TO MANAGEMENT
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It is of immense importance is any firm or organization to put the employees’ welfare first because no organization can exist on theories except if human beings carry out those theories and apply them to practical things. When a worker is employed in an organization, a guide, a rule and regulation are given to him or her to make sure that he effort and performance is directed towards one channel, which is objectives of the organization.
As well management expects high performance and corporation from the employee who is given incentives by given remuneration but when the things expected by both management and employee is not far fetched then there exists a phenomena, which raises the eye brow of the management to ask what is a miss.
This research work deals with such phenomena, which such phenomena, which is “Employee performance appraisal as a strategies to management”.
The first and only indigenous network provider in Nigeria called NITEL was originally known as post & telegraph communication. It was established during the coloninai era.
The Nigeria Telecommunications Limited (NITEL) is a federal Government owned company that provides public telecommunications services in Nigeria it started operations as a company in 1985 as an amalgam of the telecommunications Division of the default P & T Department and the Nigeria External Telecommunications limited (NIT) and now has staff strength of about 11,000.
In 1992, NITEL was commercialized following a tripartite agreement between it, the government and the Technical Committee on Privatization & Commercialization (TCPC). In the same year, NITEL pioneered the mobile telecommunications services in Nigeria, which was later excised from the company to form M-Tel in 1996. M-Tel was however reemerged resulting conglomerate was constituted into three directorates which all reported to the corporate headquarters. The directorates were for long Distance communications, Domestic Communications.
M-Tel was again excised from NITEL in April 2003. As a result of the excision, M-Tel became legally, administratively, operationally and financially autonomous but it remained fully owned by and as a full subsidiary of NITEL. The company operates a six zonal structure, the zones are:
(a) Lagos zone with headquarters in Lagos
(b) North West Zone with headquarters in Kaduna
(c) North East zone with headquarters in Bauchi
(d) South East zone with headquarters in Enugu
(e) South West zone with headquarter in Ibadan
(f) Central zone with headquarters in Abuja
Each state of the Federation and the Federal capital represents a territory. Lagos is however structured into their territories because of the volume of business in the city.
Fully commercialization policy of the federal government, NITEL Limited, more than ever, is committed to the provision of efficient, reliable and cost effective telecommunication services nationally and internationally. This set of objectives has remained the guiding principles which the company’s operations are based.
NITEL has about 800,000 telephone lines and about 13000 telex lines in the network with the introduction of digital system into the network from 1990 and the commencement of GSM operations by M-Tel its subsidiary, the total installed capacity of telephone lines is expected to reach three million next year. About 450,000 lines, while 80% of transmissions digital.
In April 2003 the management of NITEL was contracted to messers pentascope. International following another tripartie agreement between the Bureau of Public Enterprises (on behalf of the National Government). NITEL and pentascope international. This contract is for a period of three years during which pentascope international will positively turn around the operational, technical, financial and administrative fortunes of NITEL for the betterment of the company’s customer’s shareholders and stakeholders.
In the last quarter of 003, a comprehensive business plan was approved for NITEL. The programme is a blue print too turns the company around. Components of this programme are already being implemented. Some of these are a new organogam for the company investment in various projects that would on completion, earn significant revenues for the company and an intra-industry policy of cooperation, mutual understanding and national cohesion.
NITEL limited has continued to live up to the expectations of the Federal Government by improving on its achievements in the efficient management of its operations and network. The company has consolidated its corporate existence and is firmly on path to providing adequate effective, modern and viable telecommunications services for t he nation development.
This motivation which is one of the functions of management is directed at stimulating workers and therefore, the personnel management department of any organization does appraisal to verify the extent to which they have stimulated workers or employees in an organization toward achieving the organizational main objective.
According to Abraham Mashow and Douglas McGregor who are known for motivational theories said that an employee comes to work to get both the intrinsic rewards such as recognition esteem and self-fulfillment and also the extrinsic rewards like promotion, improved condition of service and an adequate emuneration. It may seem realistic to say that only pay increase motivates subordinates but it is a blatant lie.
We want to use this study to explore the employees motivational strategies in NITEL Limited and then know what the employees in this company want from their jobs and how best their expectations can be met with a view to motivating them to a higher performance which leads to higher productivity.
1.2 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SUBJECT MATTER
There is a question that always strikes ones mind whenever motivation is mentioned. That question is why is it that the self employed Nigerian is always highly motivated to produce more while the public sector employees are not usually responsive to the motivation giving to them.
It is also observed that private company employees performances are very high compared to that of public company employees. All these question and observation revolves around the phenomenon of motivation.
The problem above creates greater economic depress in Nigeria economy and NITEL Ltd. In particular but after this research work remedy will be made.
In answering the question above, some psychologist and some social scientist postulated various theories on motivation, which includes Abram Maslow’s theory of motivation, the popular theory of Herzberg. “motivation Hygiene factors”. Theory x and Y.
It is a pity that many Nigerian managers and employees of labour are not aware of this important factor called motivation and its effects on employees.
1.3 PROBLEMS THAT THE STUDY WILL BE CONCERNED WITH
The problem employees’ performance Appraisal encounter in an organization affects its productivity. Over the years business organizations has tried a lot to eradicate this problems that some times engulf managerial progress in Business organizations and NITEL Ltd. In particulars. These problems are:
Nigerian quota system
Ignorance of the effect of ones effort to the achievement of organizational goals
This problem also attaches itself with research question and will use the same opportunities to discuss research questions.
Why is employees’ performance appraisal needed in an organization?
What impact can it create in progress of an organization?
Does employee performance appraisal have any theoretical backup and background?
Can we be really done without Employees Performance Appraisal?
On the reason why employee performance Appraisal is needed in an organization, both charitable and non-profit organization has failure because of inadequate employees Performance Appraisal. Employees’ Performance Appraisal is needed in an organization to either motivate workers or remind them. NITEL Ltd. Appraisal its staff yearly, after the exercise hard working staff will be promoted and some incentive will be give to them.
1.4 THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDING THE AREA
This research is intended to discuss the various ways and methods that NITEL LTD uses to make sure their workers are influenced, it also intends to reveal some the services that NITEL LTD uses to motivate workers. If there are opportunities for promotion and training which makes employee feel integrated into the organization which makes the employee to work harder for the corporate aim of the company.
We need to point out that human beings are not machines and so their performance depends greatly on their staff of body and soul being together. Therefore this study hopes also to reveal the prospects of the employees in the company under study and their contribution to the better performance of the organization.
In any organization the personnel department handles a lot of jobs which includes employing workers, souring for workers, remuneration of workers, welfare, training lay-off and many others but in this research work we are concerned with the performance appraisal duty which in the actual sense uses all the other functions for its achievement.
This research study deals with the management reasons for the use of employees performance Appraisal which is done timely to find out the workers and management loopholes and fill it to avoid liquidation and failure.
This work is intend to explore the methods applied by NITEL LTD. Management to motivate the workers and stimulate them to perform very effectively and efficiently, and what they use to do so
1.5 DEFINITION OF IMPORTANT TERMS.
EMPLOYEE: An individual who performs work under the direction and control of an employer and is paid by that employer.
PERFORMANCE: Is execution, carrying out, carrying into action (the act of performing; of doing something successfully, using knowledge as distinguished from merely possessing it, they criticized his performance as major” “experience generally improves performance”)
APPRAISL: A way of judging the performance of a business as compared to others in the same line. Financial studies are conducted whereby comparative benchmarking is done for this purpose through these industry insights, the value of a business can also be assessed.
STRATEGY: Is the direction and scope of an organization over the long-term; which achieves advantage for the organization through its configuration of resources within a challenging environment, to meet the needs of markets and to fulfil stakeholder expectations.
MANAGEMENT: The act of managing something, he was given overall management of the program” is the direction of the economy a function of government?”
NITEL: Nigerian Telecommunications Limited.
Derek Torington & Chapman (1978) Personnel Management, William Heinemann Limited.
Nwandu Erinmma C. Ani Nnenna b. and Agbo Ojemba G. (2000) Principles of Management 11, 2nd edition, Iyke Ventures Production.
Mayo Elton (1953) The Human problems of an Industrial Civilizations, New York, Macmillan.
Nigeria Telecommunication Limited 2005 diary.
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