AN EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT POLICY ON STAFF PRODUCTIVITY IN THE PUBLIC SERVICE

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Fanibuyan (2001) defines training as the systematic process of altering the behaviour and or attitudes of employees in a direction to increase organizational goals and development as programme generally aimed at educating supervisory employees above and beyond the immediate technical requirement of the job and have a main objective of the improvement of the effective performance of all managers. Training is the application of gained knowledge and experience (Punia&Saurabh, 2013). Training can be defined as organized activity aimed at imparting information and/or instructions to improve the recipient's performance or to help him or her attain a required level of knowledge or skill (Appiah et al, 2013). Development involves preparing employees for higher responsibilities in future. Development according to Ezeuwa (2009) can be seen as the use of human resources to quantitatively change man’s physical and biological environments to his benefits or ever seen as involving the introduction of new ideas into the social structure and causing alterations on the patterns of the organization and social structure. To develop staff, (Daniels, 2003) simply refers to make them grow with the company so that they can be fitted for available higher positions within their capacity. Development deals with improving human relations and interpersonal (Iwuoha, 2009).
The first systematic effort on organization development in education was carried out in the 1960s by Miles, who worked with a school district near New York City and one near Pittsburgh (Schmuck &Runkel, 1994). Training and development are complementary parts of the same process. They are interlinked and interdependent, rather than sequential and hierarchical. Training and development is very crucial to the employees, the organization and their effectiveness (Devi &Shaik, 2012). Staff training and development can occur simultaneously or complementary, but the two do not necessarily have direct relations to each other (Comma, 2008). Training and development activities are important elements of the human resource management function of an organisation. Training and development refers to the practice of providing training, workshops, coaching, mentoring, or other learning opportunities to employees to inspire, challenge, and motivate them to perform the functions of their position to the best of their ability and within standards set by local, state, Federal and licensing organization guidelines. A formal training program is an effort by the  employer to provide opportunities for the employee to acquire job-related skills, attitudes and knowledge (McGhee et al, 1996:55).
Training makes employees feel that they are part of the organization’s family. Training creates the sense of belonging in all employees. It creates the professional development and enhances the employee’s skills. It also makes knowledgeable workforce with fewer mistakes (Adams, 2002). Increasing job satisfaction and employee morality, enhancing the employee motivation, improving the efficiencies in processes and financial gain, raising the ability to obtain new technologies, developing the innovation in strategies and products and reducing employee turnover are other important benefits of training (McNamara, 2010). In spite various government interventions and efforts; the Nigerian public sector’s score-card has remained poor performance and inefficiency. Considering the important role of training and development in bringing the Nigerian public service to an enviable height, if those that are expected to execute policies of the government and manage public affairs are not well trained and knowledgeable, there would definitely be a problem. Obviously the achievement of the objectives for which they were employed might be affected. As the popular Adage says, “If a naked man promises you clothes, ask him which one”.
Where the human capital is not planned, organizations will be confronted with the inability to deliver quality service, inability to attract and retain the people required and difficulty in the development and training of highly talented personnel. Training on the Job and some form of in-service training are examples of training being designed or intended to develop the knowledge or expertise, greater confidence and a higher degree of performance. The principal intention of training is to equip people with the knowledge required to qualify them for a particular position of employment or to improve their skills and efficient in the position they already hold. Staff development, on the hand, implies growth and the acquisition of wide experience for future strategies advantage of the organization. Training is therefore a key element for improved organizational effectiveness; it increases the level of individual and organizational competences. It helps to reconcile the gap between what should happen and what is happening – between desired targets or standards and actual levels of work performance. Thus the study focuses on the impact of training and development on staff productivity  in the public sector in Nigeria.with a case study of the impact of training and development on staff productivity in ogun state public service  
1.2      STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The concept of staff productivity and of continuous staff productivity  remains a critical factor for the continuous development of the public service In Nigeria. However inspite of numerous efforts of government through training and retraining ,the goal is still far from being reached. Staff productivity in   terms of quality output of goods and services remain fundamental for the development of the public service and the economy at large in Nigeria. Therefore training and development must be a continuous program as a means of enhancing the acquisition and improvement of new skill and knowledge.But the problem That lies shows that the cost incurred in training and development is not yielding the commensurate results.therefore it is pertinent to evaluate the nature of our training and development Program with a view to determining its impact on staff productivity.Therefore the problem confronting this research is to evaluate the impact of training and development policy on staff productivity in the public service with a case appraisal of the impact of training and development policy in the ogun state public service.      
1.3    RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1       What is the  nature of training and development. 
2       What is the nature of  training and development policy  in Nigeria.
3       What is the nature  and measure of staff productivity in the public service.
4       What is the nature of the impact of training and development on staff productivity in the public service.
5       What is the nature of the impact of training and development on staff productivity in ogun state public service.          
1.4    OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1       To determine  the nature of training and development in the public service
2       To determine the nature of staff productivity in the public service
3       To determine the nature of training and development policy in the public service
4       To determine the impact of training and development policy on staff productivity in the public service.
5       To determine the impact of  training and development on staff productivity in the ogun state public service.      
1.5    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study shall provide a detail analysis on the structure of staff training and development,training and development policy as well as appraise The impact of training and development policy on staff productivity. It shall serve a source of information on issues of training and development policy in the public service in Nigeria.
1.6    STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
1    Ho   Staff productivity  in Ogun state public service is low.
      Hi     Staff productivity in Ogun state public service is high
2    Ho   Training and Development in Ogun state public service is low
      Hi     Training and development in Ogun state public service is high
3    Ho   The impact of training and development policy on staff productivity in Ogun  is low
      Hi     The impact of training and development policy on staff productivity in Ogun is high.
1.7    SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study focuses on the evaluation of the impact of training and development policy on staff productivity in the public service with a case appraisal of the impact of training and development policy in Ogun state public service.         
1.8    DEFINITION OF TERMS      
TRAINING DEFINED Fanibuyan (2001) defines training as the systematic process of altering the behaviour and or attitudes of employees in a direction to increase organizational goals and development as programme generally aimed at educating supervisory employees above and beyond the immediate technical requirement of the job and have a main objective of the improvement of the effective performance of all managers. Training is the application of gained knowledge and experience (Punia&Saurabh, 2013). Training can be defined as organized activity aimed at imparting information and/or instructions to improve the recipient's performance or to help him or her attain a required level of knowledge or skill (Appiah et al, 2013).
DEVELOPMENT DEFINED Development involves preparing employees for higher responsibilities in future. Development according to Ezeuwa (2009) can be seen as the use of human resources to quantitatively change man’s physical and biological environments to his benefits or ever seen as involving the introduction of new ideas into the social structure and causing alterations on the patterns of the organization and social structure. To develop staff, (Daniels, 2003) simply refers to make them grow with the company so that they can be fitted for available higher positions within their capacity. Development deals with improving human relations and interpersonal (Iwuoha,2009).      
Orientation/Induction Training This is given immediately after employment to introduce the new extension staff members to their position. This is mainly concerned with acquainting new employees with the organization. This training is aimed at getting all new entrants familiarize with the organization’s goals, structure, culture, work standard and other conditions of employment      
Foundation Training This is appropriate for newly recruited personnel; every staff member needs some professional knowledge about various rules and regulations of the government, financial transaction, administrative capability, communication skills, report writing, leadership ability, etc    
Job Instruction Training Job instruction training is received directly on the job, and so it is often called "on-the job" training. It is used primarily to teach workers how to do their current jobs. A trainer, supervisor, or co-worker serves as the instructor. When it is properly planned and executed, this method includes each of the learning principles (Demetra et al, 2008).    
Career Development Training Career development is the ongoing acquisition or refinement of skills and knowledge, including job mastery and professional development, coupled with career planning activities. Job mastery skills are those that are necessary to successfully perform one's job. Professional development skills are the skills and knowledge that go beyond the scope of the employee's job description, although they may indirectly improve job performance     Maintenance/ Refresher Training This keeps specialists, administrators, accountants, supervisors and front line workers updated and enables them add to the knowledge and skills they have already.      
Management Development The management and leadership development process is flexible and continuous, linking an individual's development to the goals of the job and the organization. Management development programs on campus give you the opportunity to develop a broad base of skills and knowledge that can be applied to many jobs on campus. D&T's management development curriculum is changing. The overarching goal is a comprehensive curriculum for managers and supervisors to develop the necessary core competencies to become excellent leaders.      

REFERENCES  
Adams, P.E. (2002),Benefits of Employee Training Program; Employee Training Plan, Business Plan Builder. [Online].
Agagu, A. A. (2008), “Re-inventing the Nigerian Public Service in an era of Reforms”,Pakistan Journal of Social Science, 5(3) pp 244-252.
Akerele, A., (1990) in Ogunrin F.O and Erhijakpor, A. E. O (2009), “Services Policy Intervention; Improving Service Quality in Nigerian Public Sector”,Global Journal of Social Sciences 8(1), pp 51-60.
Appiah, K.O.,Boamah, G.K.,Baryeh,D. O.,Browne, N.,Ferkah, A. T. and Marku-Ablerdu, T. (2013),Views of Employees on Training and Development; A Case Study of Opportunity International Savings and Loans International (Online) http://ir.csuc.edu.gh:808

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