IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL SET-UP ON THE ENVIRONMENT

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1            Background of the Study
Industry is one of the major categories in economic activities after agriculture. Industry is concerned with the processing of raw material and manufacture of goods in factories. The raw materials were converted into sophisticated useful thing for the convenience living standard for the human being. An Industry may be defined as a place where the goods are manufactured by the labours with the help of machines. After primary production activities it is the industrial activity precede the second largest production of goods. It is the stage where the raw materials were manufactured in readymade for the further uses. Development of industries is the utmost important to man in modern world. In fact, their development is considered to be an index of country’s economic prosperity and strength. But to setup an industry is not as simple and easy as it seems. A number of factors are used to locate an industrial setup. Tikha-Bali-Sekhon (1993) in his book mentioned some of factors which determine the location of industries. According to him the location of manufacturing industries depends upon a number of geographical and economic factors. These factors are known as factors of localization of industries or agglomeration of industries. The most important factors are:
i.                   Raw materials.
ii.                 Source of power.
iii.              Labour.
iv.              Means of transportation.
v.                 Market. Other factors like climate, Government policies, Capital, Water land etc.
From the preceded statement we can visualize that to establish an industry have to pass through all those factors. Negligence of any factors can lead a hazardous condition of the industries. The prominent urban and peri-urban land uses are residential, commercial, industrial and transportation; and it has been argued that residential takes the largest percentage of about 60% of any urban land use, industrial use has been assigned 10 percent of the city land use (Herbert & Thomas, 1982; Oduwaiye, 2001; Obateru, 2004). The percentage of industrial land use in any urban area might look small relatively to other land uses; its impact on the socio-economic milieu of the neighborhood is very enormous. Industrialization brought with it economic expansion-expansion of local employment, expansion of service industries and the local market. Areas where industries are located also experience provision of infrastructure for the population such as roads, health and education services. The cumulative effect of these innovations is the transformation of the established structure of the immediate society. The purpose of industrial development of any region though is to provide opportunities of better living and employment to the people, the possibilities of adverse effects on the environment also increased if their adverse effects are not properly contained or reduced to minimum. Thus, there occurs a situation in which the material goods increase but the quality of life deteriorates. Several studies have been conducted within and outside Nigeria on the impact of industrial wastes and chemical contaminants on soil, air and water pollutions and their attendant health hazards (Ogoke, 1980; Tripathi et al., 1990; Lahiry, 1996; Ana et al., 2005; Udia, 2005). However, not much has been done on the impact of industrialization or industrial land use on neighborhood property values. The few literature on the subject matter include Bello and Bello (2005a) on the valuation of environmental contaminated properties, Bello (2005b) on environmental contamination and urban property values, and Ogendengbe and Oyedele (2006) on effect of waste management on property values in Ibadan. It is therefore expedient to do a critical examination on the effects of industrial land use on the neighborhood property values. Knowledge of this study would help in understanding how an increased effort on industrial development would affect the existing pattern of land use.
1.2     Statement of the Problem
There are so many industries in Agbara industrial estate, the smoke emitted from the industries rise the surrounding air temperature which may cause a serious health problem to the people, passengers, nearby settlements. Along with the industries, the passing vehicles produces lots of air pollutants .The growing use of internal combustion vehicles in Agbara industrial estate, will increase congestion, worsen air pollution and increase emissions of variety of green houses, including methane, ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide and CO2.
1.3     Objectives of the Study
The aim of this research is to examine the impact of industries set up on the environment in Agbara industrial estate, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study specifically aims to ascertain the following;
i. To identify the environmental parameters affected by the industrial set up.
ii. To examine the extent of the effect of industrial activities on environment.
iii. To determine whether industries have any significant socio-economic impact on the environment
1.4     Research Questions
1. What environmental parameters are affected by industrial set up?
2. To what extent does industrial activities affects the environment?
3. Do industries have any significant socio-economic impact on the environment?
1.5     Research Hypotheses
Ho: Industries have no significant socio-economic impact on the environment.
Hi: Industries has significant socio-economic impact on the environment.  
1.6     Significance of the Study
For the growth of economic strength, this study reveals the negative impact of the industrial setup on environment where Agbara industrial estate is taken as a reference. Air is the most delicate portion of the environment where any modification on environment can easily see and measurable. In the case of Agbara industrial estate, due to the industrial setup the air is getting worst as the level of its extension is increasing. The continuous emissions of industrial waste in the form of smoke is making the air warm and the environment condition is getting worse. This study sort to identify the impacts of industrial estate and how this impacts can be reduced or eliminated completely.
1.7     Scope of the Study
This research work is on the impact of industrial set-up on the environment using Agbara industrial estate as the case study. This is because of the representative nature of Agbara industrial estate to other industries and proximity to the researcher.    
1.8     Limitations of the Study
This study has some limitations most especially in the area of data collection. Financial constraints as well as time available for the completion of the study are among other factors that would limit the scope of the study.
1.9     Definition of Terms
Industry: Economic activity concerned with the processing of raw materials and manufacture of goods in factories.
Environment: The term environment has different meaning in different angle of different sciences. It has a dynamic visualization by different streams of study. For a sociologist an environment may denote the prevailing condition in the society. How the social scenario is exist in a particular society and how the population i.e. human being influence in the environment. An economist see the environment in the economical concept which includes of all the economic goods, house and road, lands and gardens, domestic animals, machines, stores of manufactured articles etc. For a geographer it refer to the physical parameter on geographical features which include climate condition, vegetation, rivers, soils, atmospheric condition, topographical features etc. So, with this regard we can visualize that the concept of environment have different meaning and concept in different science of study. Impact: It is the consequences of any natural or anthropogenic phenomena within the dynamic living world
Industrial set up: Refers to the location of industries in a particular area.

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