ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF LIMESTONE QUARRYING IN LIMESTONE DEPOSIT AREAS

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 56  |  681 Users found this project useful  |  Price ₦3,000

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1    Background of the study
Limestone quarrying is a major economic activity in many developing countries including Nigeria. Nigeria is endowed with abundant mineral resources of international value, including gold, marble, gypsum, gemstones, iron ore, natural gas, topaz, coal, clay, lead, tar sand, construction stone and construction sand. While the exploitation of natural resources has traditionally been seen as a vital part of economic growth, it is now well recognized that concern for environmental and socio economic consequences must be included as a key component of development activities. In many developing nations like Nigeria, quarrying is an important contributor to the national economy. However, the negative environmental impacts of quarrying are increasingly being recognized as critical (Bridge, 2004). In response, many companies, especially international ones, are embracing Corporate Social Responsibility as a fundamental component of resource extraction operations, including quarrying (Garriga and Mele, 2004). The quarrying sector may strengthen the economy at the national scale; it may also present an entirely new set of problems at the scale of the local community. Exercising social responsibility in small, remote centers, however, often means that international and transnational corporations must interact with rural or indigenous people who have strong emotional and historical links to the land (Garvin et al., 2009). The socio-economic impacts are synonymous with adverse and benefits. It could include pressure on local housing, market and increase in community conflict and crime. The creation of supporting social infrastructure including schools, hospitals and so on may transform a previously remote area and investment in transport facilities may improve accessibility to other centers of economic activities, further enhancing its prospect for development. Indeed, governments frequently regard quarrying projects as an opportunity to ‘open-up’ peripheral regions. Impacts do not fall evenly on affected parties and areas. Although a particular project may be assessed as bringing a general benefit. Some groups and / or geographical areas may be receiving most of any adverse effects, the main benefits going to others elsewhere. There is also a distinction between actual and perceived impacts. Subjective perceptions of impacts may significantly influence the responses and decisions of people towards a proposed development. Modern quarrying methods are highly capital intensive by comparison with those prevailing in the 19th century. This limits not only the number, but also the type of job opportunities. Locally-recruited labour often lacks the skills required to operate complex machinery and management usually remains in the hands of imported expatriate personnel. This in turn creates an enclave mentality in which quarrying communities remain isolated from the wider society of the country. Many of the biggest disappointments have resulted from the failure of mineral processing and related downstream manufacturing to develop at or near the site of extraction. It is these activities which create the largest number of jobs and frequently the greatest profit. They are therefore, highly desirable from a policy perspective. It is not only governments in developing countries which have been frustrated by the minimal extent of downstream processing; state authorities within developed economies have had similar experiences. The contribution on people and culture/heritage within close proximity to the quarrying operation (host communities) by the industry should create an environment that will accept and encourage development (McDivitt and Jeffery, 1992). Investigations carried out by Humann (2004) revealed the Luka community (South Africa) representatives staunchly opposed the proposed Impala open cast mine on the grounds that the community has not benefited from the company’s historical activities in the area and has not been adequately compensated for negative impacts caused by the company activities in the area. The research also revealed that the company efforts to communicate directly with community representatives in the local government ward committee, including constructing a small office building to facilitate community meetings and interaction with the company yielded little or no result due to tribal faction not until the company realizes that, given the new, increasing motives for community engagement, supporting legitimate representation structures in the community.
1.2      Statement of the problem
Limestone quarrying activities can led to health effects ranging from respiratory problems to mental disorders. Studies in Tanzania revealed that symptoms of heavy metal poisoning such as sensory disturbance, tremor, gingivitis, metallic taste, neurasthenia and night blindness are common (Harada et al., 1999). In the last five years, studies on environmental impact of limestone quarrying and processing in Sagamu (Sagamu – Ogun State, Nigeria) have revealed a declining kola nut output from the plantations within a few kilometres radius of the cement factory (Adekoya, 2003; Aigbedion, 2005). Exploitation and processing of minerals in a particular area creates cultural impacts, which involves the changes to norms, values and beliefs of individuals that guide and rationalize the cognition of themselves and their society (Burdge and Vanclay, 1996).
1.3     Significance of the study
The aim of this project is to determine the environmental impact assessment of limestone quarrying in Ini Local Government Area of AkwaIbom state, interpret findings, analyze implications, and convey high level results and implications to national decision-makers for sustainable and better environment of all limestone deposit areas in Nigeria.
1.4     Objectives of the study
This study was undertaken majorly to examine the environmental impact assessment of limestone quarrying in limestone deposit areas. Specific objectives of the study are:
i.             To ascertain whether there is asignificant environmental impact of limestone quarrying in limestone deposit areas.
ii.           To know whether the environmental impact assessment of limestone quarrying in limestone deposit area is accessible.  
1.5     Research questions
In the course of the study, the researcher seeks to provide suitable answers to the problem following the questions below:
1. Is there a significant environmental impact of limestone quarrying in limestone deposit areas?
2. Can the environmental impact assessment of limestone quarrying in limestone deposit area be accessed?
1.6     Research hypotheses
1.  Ho: Limestone quarrying has no significant environmental impact on limestone deposit areas.
Hi:  Limestone quarrying has significant environmental impact on limestone deposit areas.
2.  Ho: The environmental impact assessment of limestone quarrying in limestone deposit area is inaccessible.
Hi: The environmental impact assessment of limestone quarrying in limestone deposit area is accessible.
1.7     Limitations of the study
The study was carried out to investigate the environmental impact assessment of limestone quarrying in Ini Local Government Area. The study is limited to Ini Local Government AreainAkwaIbom State. This is because of the representative nature of all limestone deposit areas in Nigeria, proximity to the researcher, time and financial constraints.
1.8     Scope of the study
This research work is on the environmental impact assessment of limestone quarrying in Ini Local Government Area with particular emphasis on how it impacts on quality standards of the soil and water in Ini Local Government Area of AkwaIbom State.
1.9     Definition of terms
Limestone:This is a hard sedimentary rock, composed mainly of calcium carbonate or dolomite, used as building material and in the making of cement.
Limestone Quarry:This is a place where large blocks of naturally occurring sedimentary calcite or aragonite rock are cut from the earth, mainly for use in construction.
Limestone Deposit Area: This is an area where limestone is found.
Environmental Impact Assessment: This is a process of evaluating the likely environmental impacts of a proposed project or development, taking into account inter-related socio-economic, cultural and human-health impacts, both beneficial and adverse.

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT

Not What You Are Looking For?



For QUICK Help Call Us Now!

+234 813 292 6373


Here's what our amazing customers are saying

JONNAH EHIS
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Excellent
MATTHEW NGBEDE
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Excellent
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about iprojectmaster.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Excellent
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Excellent
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.
Excellent
Merry From BSU
I am now a graduate because of iprojectmaster.com, God Bless you guys for me.
Excellent
Samuel From Ajayi Crowther University
You guys just made life easier for students. Thanks alot iprojectmaster.com
Excellent
Musa From Ahmadu Bello University
Thank you iprojectmaster for saving my life, please keep it up and may God continue to bless you people.
Excellent

HOW TO GET YOUR COMPLETE PROJECT INSTANTLY

  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on 0813-292-6373 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: (+234) 813-292-6373

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!