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This research work was undertaken to find out the roles of data preservation in enhancing the efficiency of secretarial function in selected banks in Enugu Metropolis. In doing this, the researcher evaluated the various methods of data preservation their advantages and disadvantages and the functions of a secretary in an organization. The researcher collected data from primary and secondary source. Through the primary source of data questionnaire was used to elicit appropriate information from the respondents (secretaries) in selected banks in Enugu metropolis. Secondary source of data collection in the form of textbooks, lecture notes, handbooks and journals were used to explain the topic. The data was analyzed using simple percentages and tables and statements. Findings from the study revealed that majority of the respondents use computerized method of data preservation while minority uses electromechanical  and manual method. It was equally revealed that users of manual method face varying problems such as time wastage and  monotony while computer users face problems such as retraining and complexity. In view of this, it was concluded that computerized method is the most effective method of data preservation. And the method was recommend to be used in banks so as to enhance the efficiency of secretarial function.





According to the Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English data is information prepared for and operated on a computer programmer. The preservation of data is as old as man himself. In the earlier times, men were capable of storing information in their brains and passing them on form one person to another by mouths. But the more authentic one were data inscribed on stone tablets, on paper scrolls and eve on walls so that generation later can still make reference to them if properly preserved. However, there were limitations on how for one could rely on these methods of preserving data. As time progressed, man continued in searching for as satisfactory data processing/preservation machine. It was due to the numerous problems encountered by man when dealing with large numbers that gave birth to the invention of various mechanisms for preserving data.

Although man used pebbles, grains of corn, figures and toes as well as other smaller objects. The problems on how to handle pebble conveniently was solved in the Tigress-Euphrates valley about  (5000 years ago by designing a clay board with grooves into which the pebble could be placed. The device enable the grooves to be moved from outside on the instruction to the other to facilitates counting. The technique which was the forerunner of the abacus was adopted and modified by the Chinese and Japanese. The Abacus comprises of several rows of beads which slide in sticks or wires mounted in a rectangular frame. The frame of the abacus is divided by a cross number so that each row of the bead has a sector with four or five beads and another sector with one bead (two on some abacuses).

The abacus, however could not solve man’s arithmetic problems efficiently and effectively so, man’s search for a better and improved method continued. By the seventeenth century Jon Nappier a Scottish theologian and mathematician developed a calculating aid know as Nappiers bone. It consisted of a set of roles each of which had a multiplication table marked on it. He later developed logarithms – a tabular system of numbers which simplified arithmetic operations with logarithms, multiplications, divisions, additions, etc were modified and simplified.

In 1642, Blaise Pascal developed a digital counter with teeth numbering 0 – 9. he invented this  device to assist in adding long columns of figures in his fathers tax office in frame. The machine consisted of a row of wheels with teeth. The first wheel denoted units, the second tens etc. when the first wheel was turned six spaces six was shown in windows at the top of the machine. If the wheel was turned tow more spaces the result was eight, the addition of another seven caused that indicator to proceed through 0 to 6. in this instance, a lever on the units dial must have moved the tens dial one tenth (1/10) of a revolution so that the machine has carried one indicating a total of 16 Pascals machine was only capable of performing addition and subtraction but based on his effort other mechanical machines were developed.

In 1671, a German Philosopher and mathematician, Gothfried leibniz conceived a calculating machine but the machine was completed in 1674 this was known as Libniz machine and was useful in arithmetic procedures. The search for satisfactory data processing and preserving machine continued until in 1909 when Charles Kettering developed for the national cash register company the first accounting machine called the teller. The teller machine was used for certifying passbooks using a tabulating carriage, the machine could sort data into a number of columns in addition to performing the functions of recording, calculating and summarizing.

All these machines discussed above although efficient had limitations. They were manual rather than  automatic. They laid the foundation on which the modern electronic computers were built. In 1802 a French man named Joseph Marie Jacquard invented a weaving loom called Jacquard’s automatic loom. This textile loom was responsible for making famous the wearing trade. The punch card with punch holes supplied instructions which controlled trade selection and directed pattern designs

In 1917 Charles Babbage an English mathematician designed the first machine that used the punch card in solving mathematical problems. This innovation can equally be used as a memory or storage unit that can store data in the form of holes punched in cards. However, the effectiveness of this machine was limited by slowness and mechanical difficulties. These restrictions were overcome by the next development in data a preservation history – the invention of electronic computer.

In 1954, the first type of computer called UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) was directed to a business enterprise. They were designed to handle vast quantities of data typical of business speed, output and preservation. Over the years, files and cabinets have been used to preserve data too. The development of banking services in Nigeria  also passed several stages. In these stages of development manual method of data preservation was used. In manual data preservation human efforts is combined with simple office tools to perform the operation. However, today the major banks in operations in Enugu are the First Bank of Nigeria plc, Union Bank for Africa Plc, the Africa continental Bank plc, the international Bank for Wes Africa (IBWA) Plc presently in these banks, data is being preserved in the Hard Disc or Floppy Disc which is used by the computers as well as manually. It is on record that there are many methods of preserving data in banks. This study is directed towards identifying the various methods of preserving data, the roles and efficiency of these methods.


Public opinion in most offices is that some secretaries especially new ones are lax in their duties, since they are unable to produce stored data promptly when needed. This might be as a result of the method of data preservation being adopted. It is equally common to see a secretary looking for preserved data, which may have been removed by an unauthorized person. Because of the role played by secretaries in retrieving preserved data, many officers complain that secretaries are mere source of information others complain that most secretaries are relaxed and lazy because of the ease with which they produce preserved data with modern devices or equipment. It is equally feared that because of the case with which secretaries retrieve preserved data with modern equipment, this might kill the initiative of the secretaries and make their job less challenging. What then is the true position? Can good data preservation system have any effect on the job performance of the secretary? The need to provide answer to the above question necessitated this study, that is to find out the roles of data preservation in enhancing the efficiency of secretarial functions in banks.


The purpose of this research work is to:

1.  Identify the various methods for preserving data in banks in Enugu metropolis.

2.  The constraints faced by secretaries in using these methods.

3.  The roles of these methods in enhancing the efficiency of secretarial functions.


This study is focused on the roles of data preservation in enhancing the efficiency of secretarial function in selected banks in Enugu ,metropolis. The selected Banks are Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, Africa Continental Bank Plc, First Bank of Nigeria plc, and United bank for Africa. The study involves all cadre of secretaries in the selected banks.


1.  What are the methods used to preserve data in banks toady?

2.  What are the roles of these methods and how do these methods enhance secretarial functions?

3.  What are the problems emanating from these methods?


The importance of this study is that it will help the secretaries to be aware of the best method of preserving data, the banks as well as other organizations will benefits from the research because secretaries need guidelines on how to preserve data efficiency and effectively, this will in turn improve or contribute to the achievement of their goals and objectives. The students will also help them ground themselves with the required competency for the operation of those machines use for preserving data as they move into the labor market.


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