1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
As many invented tools, weapons, clothing, shelter and language, the need for training becomes an essential ingredient in the match to civilization. Whether our ancestors stumbled upon or invented these facets of civilization of relatively little significance. What is more important is that man has the ability to pass on to others the knowledge and skill gained in mastering circumstances. This was done by deliberated example. Through these devices, the development process called training was developed and when the massage was received by another successful, we say that learning took place and knowledge or skills was transferred. The ninth century ushered in an era of social legislative and with it sizeable changes in the concept of the work’s organization arose. Through these changes, however we constantly developed emphasis as we see today, quality training of workers, and this has culminated in the support of the Trade Union for any legislation that provides wide range of vocational education. One of the objectives of every organization should be to provide opportunities for its employees to optimized their performance in pursuit of organizational goals. With this end in view, it may be profitable also to help employees feel that the organization cares for them as people, there is more likelihood of their responding willingly to satisfy the need of concern.
When we consider training therefore, we are society any instructional or experimental means to develop person’s behaviour pattern in order to achieve a standard level of performance. These is an essential prerequisite for adequate performance in occupation whatever the job may be. The importance of human resources to any organization whether public or private has long been identified. Organization objectives such as profit maximization, share market and social responsibility cannot be fulfilled without human beings who co-ordinate the activities of the organization using other factors of production. The reorganization of the value of “human capital” to any organization has led to a proposal by experts that people should be classified as assets and to be so recorded in accounting records. Investment in human capital is worthy and necessary expenditure if any organization is to discharge its legal, statutory and social responsibilities to its owners, public and society at large.
The indisputable reason why training and development of employees should be a revolving undertaking is because of change posed by modern technology. Changes take place every minute hour, day etc and the world is faced with an era of technological advancement that can make already required skills obsolete. Training therefore is not retracted to new employees or old employees, but to both, and even to senior management personnel. Training brightens employees, athletes towards their work. This in turn improves job performance at all levels which facilitates the realization of both individual land organizational objectives.
In Nigeria, government has realized the need to develop human resources since independence in 1960, it was discovered that most top government positions were held by expatriates and that Nigerians had few scientists and Engineers. Government had to set up a manpower. Board in 1962, following the report of Abbey commission. This was done in order to increase executive “capacity”, more universities and polytechnics were established and the universities grew from one in 1959 to (thirty one) in 1989. Enrolment in the universities grew from 2, 1993 (Two thousand, nine hundred and ninth three) in 1962 to 55,249 (fifty five thousand, two hundred and forty nine) in 1980. Many polytechnics were established by both the federal and state governments in the 1970’s and 198’s. Growth in the number of secondary and primary schools and enrolment into them became very high. Several training institutions such as Industrial Training Funds cetre for Management Development and Administration staff college were set up to accelerate human resources development. Recently, the federal education through the introduction of 6-3-3-4 programme, the attention and heavy investment b the government over the years o education was also necessitated by realization that al the country” development plans have been frustrated due to lack of “Executive capacity”.
HISTORY AND GROWTH OF BANKING INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA
Banking business in Nigeria started in 11892 by African Banking Corporation. The bank was taken over by West Africa, now first bank, in 1894. Barclay bank, now Union Bank was established in 1917. the two expatriate banks dominated the banking scene until 1933, when National Bank of Nigeria was established. Many indigenous banks were established between 1929 and 1952. But most of them failed probably due to poor management and lack of training, apparent from low capitalization and staff competition from foreign owned banks. The period of 1950 – 1986 witnessed the era of a regulation. The central bank of Nigeria was established in 1959 with power to promote and integrate the Nigerian financial system. The central bank of Nigerian encouraged development of money and capital markets. It also encouraged human resources development in the banking industry. Other useful developments within the period that affected human resources development in the banks are:
(a) The companies decree (1968) which made it mandatory for all companies in Nigeria including banks to register locally and be subjected to Nigerian law.
(b) Indigenization decree (1972) which introduced the system of deliberate management.
(c) Acquisition of controlling share in the big expatriate banks. The period of 1986 to date is called the banking boom, era, because of the deregulation of the rapidity with which banks were established due to the deregulation of the economy. The government and private sector now rely on the banks for allocation of human resources.
The rapid growth within the industry and financial system as a whole has over stretched the management cadre of the banks. It has erected rapid uplifment and promotion for man staff of the banks. Such a situation surely called for rapid training and retraining to a high level of competence within the industry. Before the establishment of central bank in 1959, training of Nigerian Bankers was not taken seriously. There was a gentlemen’s agreement within the foreign owned banks in competition for business and staff. Except in big cities, one could not set offices of two foreign banks in the same town and mobility of staff among them was not allowed. However, the indigenous banks had to snatch some Nigerians from these banks to survive, since they needed some experienced hands is in record that foreign banks in the early part of this century employed Nigerian menials and clerks. Their management and intermediate staff were expatriates. Until the seventies one ceased seeing many white faces as accountants, managers and office executives in banks.
There were no conscious efforts to groom Nigerians for management positions. Infact, the caliber of people employed were either dropouts from schools or school certificate holders with lower grades. So opening a training center locally was union bank plc in 1956. First Bank did not have a local training center until 1975. The Savannah Bank former Bank of America did not have a training center until 1996 even though its first office was opened for business in 1960. NAL merchant Bank only established a training center in 1988, after 28 years in business. However, some banks are known to have set up training centers within a short time after establishment.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Several banks established training centers at various locations all over the country today to train their workers. Despite all the efforts towards human resources development by banks, one still observes long queues whenever he comes to deposit or withdraw money or for any other services rendered by the banks. Secondly the rate of labour turnover in banks especially commercial banks is till very high compared to what it used to be. There is no doubt that high rate of mobility contributes to the poor services rendered by banks. This is the opinion of the researcher and is very essential because a well planned development and training programme value to the organization in terms of increased productivity, reduction of costs and enhanced efficiency in order t achieve the organizational goals.
1.3 POSE OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study are:
1. To determine the influence of human resources training and development on the operation banks.
2. To determine whether there is any relationship between labour turnover and availability of training and development opportunities in Banks.
3. To examine the training and development opportunities available to staff of banks.
4. To find out whether staff of the banks see the training and development programme as motivating and a means of job enrichment and satisfaction.
5. To find out the number of staff trained each year and how it has affected their performance at work.
6. To establish the type of training available, methods and place of training.
7. To evaluate works performance before and after training courses.
8. To make recommendations where appropriate to the bank in order to make more meaningful in human resources training and development programme.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work when completed will be of immense value to the following:
BANKS IN NIGERIA:- This study will help the management of the banks in Nigeria to improve the quality of their staff with particular reference to union Bank Plc, Enugu main Branch.
BANKS CUSTOMERS:- An improving banking service will save the customers time they waste in the banks before they are attended to.
NIGERIAN ECONOMY:- The research work will help to alleviate our battered and shattered economy.
BANK STAFF:- When banks realize the need for human resources training and development, their employees will no doubt have a grater opportunity f being trained. This will help in developing and shaping their future.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is very wide if it has to be carried out in all union banks plc in Nigeria. The study is limited based on the fact that there is no time and material resources to see to the whole nation. This study is limited to union bank plc (Enugu Main Office) and the findings may not reflect the situation all over the country. These findings may not be valid for the whole banks in Nigeria, but at large, what happens in banks in Enugu State can be said to apply to other banks.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
It is the objective of this study to know the following:-
1. Do training and development of human resources have any influence on the level f performance of the banks?
2. What percentage of the staff is trained annually?
3. What type(s) of training programme (s) are available in the banks?
4. Do training and development have the profitability of the banks?
5. What is the reaction of customers as to the services rendered b the banks?
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
For better understanding of this research work, the following terms area operational defined.
1. Human resources is defined as part of management process concern with the maintenance of human relation and assurising the physical well being of employee so that they can give maximum contribution to efficient working. It is purely a thing of interest, really it is a pars.
2. A worker is an employee who works for a member of the working class.
3. Training is the systematic development of the skills and attitudes required by an individual to perform adequately a given job.
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