Select Currency
Translate this page


Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 65  |  1015 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000





This study was conducted to assess the perception and attitude of women attending the antenatal clinic at central hospital towards caesarean sectionbetween 25th of September to 20th of September 2014 at central hospital Sapele road Benincity,Edo state.The study is a descriptive non experimental study carried out amongst 155 clients in the antenatal clinic interviewed with a structured questionnaire that solicited information’s about their socio demographic characteristics, their perceptions , attitude and factors influencing their attitude towards caesarean section ,the women had a very good awareness about C/S 155(100% ) ,however only 59 (38%) thinks it is not an abnormal way of having babies while 65.2% could accept it only if life was threatened. logistics shows that cultural perceptions and level of education were associated with non-acceptance of caesarean section .there is a need for programs and avenues through which cultural perception s would be debunked addressing each cultural beliefs and community understanding so that the women’s perceptions may be modified and C/S can be accepted as a method of delivery in Nigeria.




The menstrual cycle is the cycle of natural changes that occurs in the uterus and ovary as an essential part of making sexual reproduction possible. (Lentz et al., 2012) Its timing is governed by endogenous(internal) biological cycles. The menstrual cycle is essential for the production of eggs, and for the preparation of the uterus for pregnancy. (Lentz et al., 2012) The cycle occurs only in fertile female humans and other female primates. In human females, the menstrual cycle occurs repeatedly between the ages of menarche, when cycling begins, until menopause, when it ends. In humans, the length of a menstrual cycle varies greatly among women (ranging from 21 to 35 days), with 28 days designated as the average length. (Anderson et al., 2003) Each cycle can be divided into three phases based on events in the ovary (ovarian cycle) or in the uterus (uterine cycle).[Anderson et al., 2003].

The ovarian cycle consists of the follicular phase, ovulation, and luteal phase whereas the uterine cycle is divided into menstruation, proliferative phase, and secretory phase. Both cycles are controlled by the endocrine system and the normal hormonal changes that occur can be interfered with using hormonal contraception to prevent reproduction. (Klumpet al., 2013) By convention, the length of an individual menstrual cycle in days is counted starting with the first day of menstrual bleeding. Stimulated by gradually increasing amounts of estrogen in the follicular phase, discharges of blood (menses) slow then stop, and the lining of the uterus thickens. Follicles in the ovary begin developing under the influence of a complex interplay ofhormones, and after several days one or occasionally two become dominant (non-dominant follicles atrophy and die). Approximately mid-cycle, 24–36 hours after the Luteinizing Hormone (LH) surges, the dominant follicle releases an ovum, or egg, in an event called ovulation. After ovulation, the egg only lives for 24 hours or less without fertilization while the remains of the dominant follicle in the ovary become a corpus luteum; this body has a primary function of producing large amounts of progesterone. Under the influence of progesterone, the endometrium (uterine lining) changes to prepare for potential implantation of an embryo to establish a pregnancy. If implantation does not occur within approximately two weeks, the corpus luteum will involute, causing sharp drops in levels of both progesterone and estrogen.

The hormone drop causes the uterus to shed its lining and egg in a process termed menstruation (Klumpet al., 2013) In the menstrual cycle, changes occur in the female reproductive system as well as in other bodily systems (which can lead to breast tenderness or mood changes, for example). A woman's first menstruation is termed menarche, and occurs typically around age 12-13. The end of a woman's reproductive phase of life is called the menopause, and this commonly occurs somewhere between the ages of 45 and 55 (Sioba´n D et al., 2004).

The menstrual cycle is characterized by cyclical fluctuations in the levels of FSH, LH, estrogen and progesterone The hormones are known to have an effect on oxygen carrying capacity, immune response, bleeding and also changes in serum electrolytes which may be responsible for variable physical, psychological symptoms and autonomic changes. It is suggested that stressful situations during ovulatory periods and menstruation may cause increased 17-hydroxy corticosterone levels with resulting eosinopenia (Feuring M et al., 2002) Platelet function is periodically altered during the ovarian cycle due to the influence of progesterone and estrogen on Von Willebrand factor concentrations (Sioba´n D et al., 2004). Ovarian hormones influence almost all the systems of the body. 

They are known to alter the immune system like depression of the suppressor T cell activity Human & animal studies suggest that there is a change in the distribution of immune cells during different phases of menstrual cycle (Pehlivanoglu B et al., 2001) 5–20% of women reporting severe dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation) which may be associated with reproductive morbidities like infection (Sioba´n D et al., 2004), thus estimation of leucocyte count is an important tool. Females have more asthma throughout the reproductive years. Female sex steroids are pro-inflammatory and will increase the susceptibility to atopy(Sioba´n D et al., 2004),.

Red blood cell (RBC)indicesassist in classifying anemias. In general,be sure to fully assess a patient’s nutritional status andconsultadietitianforfurther work up and intervention as appropriate. Wound healing can be grossly affected by nutritional anemias,and patients may require iron, zinc, and vitamin C supplements to promote surgical wound healing. Patients will also re- quire teaching and need encouragement to include iron rich foods such asliver, red meat, raisins, peas, apricots,kidney beans, and fortified cereals and breads in their diets (Sioba´n D et al., 2004).

Platelets are irregularly shaped, disk-like fragments of their precursor cell, the megakaryocyte. They are one fourth to one third the size of erythrocytes (1.5–3.0 μm). As megakaryocytes develop, they undergo a process of fragmentation that results in the release of over 1,000 platelets per cell. Several factors stimulate megakaryocytes to release platelets within the bone marrow sinusoids. This includes the hormone thrombopoietin, which is mainly generated by the liver and the kidneys and released in response to low numbers of circulating platelets. Platelets have no defined nucleus but possess important proteins, which are stored in intracellular granules and secreted when platelets are activated during coagulation.

Platelet adherence can be initiated by a variety of substances. For instance, factors released by platelets cause the upregulation of adherence proteins (integrins) on endothelial cells. One critical substance released by endothelial cells and also megakaryocytes is called von Willebrand factor. It enhances platelet adhesion to the endothelium by forming a bridge between platelet surface receptors and collagen in the subendothelial matrix. The most common hereditary bleeding disorder is von Willebrand disease, caused by an inherited deficiency of the factor. Ruptured cells at the site of tissue injury release adenosine diphosphate (ADP), causing the aggregation of more platelets, which are, in turn, stabilized by fibrinogen. Clinically, penicillin in high doses can coat platelets and prevent aggregate formation.


Damage to the vasculature quickly leads to massive bruising and, if unrepaired, to extreme blood loss and consequent organ failure.The blood’s response to blood vessel injury can be viewed as four… Hemostasis (the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel) can be organized into four separate but interrelated events: compression and vasoconstriction; the formation of a temporary loose platelet plug (also called primary hemostasis); formation of the more stable fibrin clot (also called secondary hemostasis), and finally, clot retraction and dissolution.  The four steps are explained in more detail in the following sectionsSherwood et al.,2013).

Aim and Objectives

In this present study the Aim and Objectives of this study is to correlate the effect of Menstruation on the internal hemostasis and platelet function in female student of child bearing ages who experience normal menstrual cycle as an adjunct to determine the deleterious or the indifferent effect of the menstrual phases, blood losses during menstrual cycle on the platelet consistency.


Not What You Are Looking For?

For Quick Help Chat with Us Now!

+234 814 010 7220

+233 541 351 187

Here's what our amazing customers are saying

Emmanuel Essential
Kogi state University
I actually took the risk,you know first time stuff But i was suprised i received as requested. I love you guys 🌟 🌟 🌟 🌟
Very Good
Azeez Abiodun
Moshood Abiola polytechnic
I actually googled and saw about iproject master, copied the number and contacted them through WhatsApp to ask for the availability of the material and to my luck they have it. So there was a delay with the project due to the covid19 pandemic. I was really scared before making the payment cause I’ve been scammed twice, they attended so well to me and that made me trust the process and made the payment and provided them with proof, I got my material in less than 10minutes
Very Good
Gbadamosi Solomon Oluwabunmi
Swift delivery within 9 minutes of payment. Thank you project master
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.


  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on +234 814 010 7220 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.


How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: +234 814 010 7220

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!