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THE IMPACT OF WORK ENVIRONMENT AND JOB PERFORMANCE TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE IN THE NIGERIA POLICE FORCE
1.1 Background to the Study
According to Colauto and Barros (2013), police work is a particular stressful occupation; Police officers on their daily duties have not only to take care of themselves but also assure the safety of the public and still be able to keep their emotions and reactions under control. As a consequence of the demanding occupation, several physical and psychological health problems can occur, with impact on the welfare of officers and citizens. This exposure of police officers to potential stress sources over time has been associated with several problems Achonga, Lagat and Akuja, (2011), affecting not only behavioral such as absenteeism, poorer interactions with the public, fatigue, attitude towards the use of violence; excessive drinking and smoking, but also physical such as cardiovascular diseases, digestive problems, and psychological components thoughts of suicide, anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and burnout. Thus, the understanding of police officers stress is crucial.
Nowadays, police forces in most European countries face extremely challenging times. These are due to a combination of factors including open borders, drug trafficking, terrorism, multicultural diversity and inclusion and the overall use of new technologies in contemporary life. Although previous studies have highlighted the effects of acute organizational and operational stress among police officers across different European countries Achonga et al. (2011), little is known about the effects of these contemporary demands on police officer’s occupational health or whether they are somewhat similar or completely different across European countries. In an attempt to understand this relationship and reflect on best practices on police occupational health in Europe, it seems crucial to conduct European comparative research, contributing to the development of a more qualified police training system ‘capable of responding quickly and intelligently to the accelerating pace of social change’. Although European comparative studies among police officers have strong theoretical and applied implications at an individual and institutional level, little work has been conducted in this area, mainly due the difficulties associated with the research process and described in the following lines.
Ajani and Onwubuya (2010) states that there is still a gap between science and policing. In other words, on the one hand, police personnel complicate the use of results from academic research and knowledge. On the other hand, some academics ignore the real scenarios in which the police operate. Additionally, the difficulties researchers face when aiming to conduct research among police institutions, such as the access to data collection procedures, should also be seen as an explanation for the gap between science and policing. Corruption should not be regarded as an exclusive social problem of the Nigeria Police alone; it permeates all facets of the society. Almost everyone in Nigeria is guilty of the same offence of cutting corners which means that all are key players and are culpable of the offence. This assertion agrees with the major tenets of the systems theory of Herbert Spencer (1820 - 1903); Vilfredo Pareto (1848 – 1923) and Margaret Archer (1988) which observed that the society is a giant system with intricate web of relationships, which exist in various and varied interactions, interrelationships and interdependences between and among its elements.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The performance of the police force has been a tedious issue for quite some time in. It has been reported that stressful work environment affects the performance of the police officers. According to the performance audit of NPS (2014), on housing the poor accommodation of the officers put undue pressure on the personnel. Carmargo (2011) asserts that police officers live in deplorable conditions with inadequate transport facilities to allow tem move from one place to another. This stressful condition of the police officers affects their performance. The Annual Report (NPS Annual Report, 2013) had in it that as a result of stressful conditions most police officers intermittently fell sick. Further the report indicated that in year 2013, Over 100 personnel were granted off duties for over 3 months accumulatively due to sickness. The Ransley (2009), report on police reforms made over 200 recommendations geared at improving the terms and conditions of police which would consequently increase their job satisfaction. Among those recommendations include need to review the salaries of police officers periodically, improvement of housing and accommodations, purchase of modern equipment and logistical facilities. The report further articulated the need for police officers allowed to utilize their leave days as part of stress management program, extension of training period of recruits from 9months to 15months. According to Were, Gakure and Waititu (2012), performance in the police force has been deteriorating. Every day, criminal activities are experienced, though the lack of security is blamed on the police, is argued to be a product of poor housing conditions. Health and safety of the police officers is also wanting. The police lack of a comprehensive medical and life insurance cover has accelerated stress among police officers especially when accidents occur and the hospital bills are unmanageable (Amnesty International, 2014).
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to find out the impact of work environment on the performance of the Nigeria police force, specifically the study intends to:
1. Find out the challenges faced by the Nigeria police
2. Analyze the impact of work environment on the performance of the Nigeria police force
3. Find out the factors that influence work performance of the Nigeria police force
1.4 Research Question
1. What are the challenges faced by the Nigeria police force?
2. Is there any impact of work environment on the performance of the Nigeria police force?
3. Are there factors that influence work performance of the Nigeria police force?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: there is no impact of work environment on the performance of the Nigeria police force
Hi: there is no impact of work environment on the performance of the Nigeria police force
1.6 Significance of the Study
This research will be of great significance to the Nigeria police force, it will expose the government to the challenges the Nigeria police force are face with, and to how work environment affects them. This research will also expose the general public to the kind of challenges the police force is faced with, policy makers and stakeholders will be expose to the influence of work environment to the performance of the Nigeria police, whereby formulating policy that will help and favor them so as to increase their capacity.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This research work will cover the challenges faced by the Nigeria police and also concept and literatures on work environment and job performance will be reviewed.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.
However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.
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