Select Currency
Translate this page

A PROJECT RESEARCH ON EXTRACTION AND STUDY OF EFFECT OF HEAT ON CAFFEINE EXTRACTED FROM KOLA NUT

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 75  |  1039 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT

A PROJECT RESEARCH ON EXTRACTION AND STUDY OF EFFECT OF HEAT ON CAFFEINE EXTRACTED FROM KOLA NUT

 

ABSTRACT

Caffeine is an odorless, slightly bitter organic compound found mostly in beverages such as coffee or tea and in chocolate.  It is the most widely used “mind-altering drug” in the world, though it is considered safe and is mostly unregulated.  Caffeine acts as a mild stimulant on the nervous system, aiding in alertness.  Caffeine is also included in many weight loss supplements due to its reputation of acting as an appetite suppressant and in stimulating thermogenesis.  A number of over the counter pain relievers, headache remedies and antihistamines contain caffeine.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Kola cola is common name for a genus of about 125 species of evergreen trees (trees that certain foliage throughout the year). It is a native to tropical areas of the world. Kola trees are best known for their seeds or nuts which are rich in caffeine and used in the manufacturing of carbonated soft drinks known as kola beverages.1

Kola trees belong to the cacao family sterculiaceae. The main species grown for their seed production are classified as kola nitida and kola acuminate.2They are classified into these groups on the basis of the amount of cotyledons they have: kola nitida is dicotyledonous while kola acuminate has more than two cotyledons. Thses are two varieties of kola nitida which are rubra and alba. 3,4

Economically, the most important kola species are those cultivated in tropical; countries for their caffeine –rich nuts.1 Harvested by hand, the brown nuts, which resemble chestnuts and have an aroma. Like that of nutmeg are separated from the follicles and sun-dried, after which they are ready for shipment. Kola forms a part of social and religious customs in West Africa. Kola is one of the major sources of caffeine. Humans have consumed caffeine since the Stone Age.5 Early peoples found that chewing the seeds, bark, or leaves of certain plants had the effects of easing fatigue, stimulating awareness, and elevating one's mood. Only much later was it found that the effect of caffeine was increased by steeping such plants in hot water. Global consumption of caffeine has been estimated at 120,000 tones per year,6 making it the world's most popular psychoactive substance. This amounts to one serving of a caffeinated beverage for every person every day. Caffeine is a central nervous system and metabolic stimulant,7 and is used both recreationally and medically to reduce physical fatigue and restore mental alertness when unusual weakness or drowsiness occurs. Caffeine and other methylxanthine derivatives are also used on newborns to treat apnea and correct irregular heartbeats. Caffeine stimulates the central nervous system first at the higher levels, resulting in increased alertness and wakefulness, faster and clearer flow of thought, increased focus, and better general body coordination, and later at the spinal cord level at higher doses.8 Once inside the body, it has a complex chemistry, and acts through several mechanisms as described below.

Many cultures have legends that attribute the discovery of such plants to people living many thousands of years ago.Muslims consider kola nuts to be sacred and incorporate them in ceremonial and social occasions. When chewed kola nuts taste bitter initially but leave a sweet, lingering aftertaste.

1.2 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF KOLANUTS

The analysis of the three predominant species k. acuminata and k. nitida showed that crude protein range from 3.9-6.7%. kola contains between 1.0 and 1.2 caffeine. Kola contains a glycoside kolanine, 9% protein, 2% fat, 74% carbohydrate on fresh bases.

1.3 USES OF KOLANUTS

Use of the kola nut, like the coffee berry and tea leaf, appears to have ancient origins.

It is chewed in many West African cultures, individually or in a social setting, to restore vitality and ease hunger pangs.

In 1911, kola became the focus of one of the earliest documented health scares when the US government seized 40 barrels and 20 kegs.

It is also used in the confectionary industries.

Kola is also used in masticatory and its extract is used in soft drink manufacturing.

In addition to their use in s of drink manufacture, kola nuts are used in traditional African folk medicine to cure stomach ulcers, diarrhea, dysentery and other ills.

It is used to produce kola wine and also incorperated into chocolate drinks.

Kola forms a part of social and religious customs in West Africa.

Kola is a source of caffeine and also essential oils used in the confectionary industries.

1.4 CAFFEINE

Caffeine is a bitter, white crystalline xanthine alkaloid and a psychoactivestimulant drug. Caffeine was discovered by a German chemist, Friedrich Ferdinand Runge. He coined the term kaffein, a chemical compound incoffee (the German word for which is Kaffee), which in English becamecaffeine (and changed to Koffein in German).9 Caffeine belongs to the family of heterocyclic compounds known as purines. 

The structure of caaffeine and other purine derivative can be shown in the figure above .

It has the systematic name 3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione; it is also known as 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, and 1,3,7-trimethyl-2,6-dioxopurine. Caffeine was discovered in coffee in 1820. In 1838, it was established that theine discovered in tea in 1827 is identical to caffeine.10

The exact composition of cola nitida have been shown to include- xathine alkaloid (caffeine, theophylline, theobronine) tamin, betaine and kolanine.11The bitter taste is due to the presence of tamin and betaine while the reddish stain extracted is the kolatine and kolanine content. It occurs in the fruit and bark of a number of plants; like tea leaves, coffee, cocoa, kola nuts, beans and mate-leave. Its molecular formula is C8H10O2N4 with 28.85% nitrogen content.                         

STRUCTURE OF CAFFEINE

 

1.4.1 PROPERTIES OF CAFFEINE

                                IUPAC name

1,3,7-trimethyl- 1H-purine- 2,6(3H,7H)-dione

 

Other names

1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, trimethylxanthine, methyltheobromine, 7-methyltheophylline, theine, mateine, guaranine

 

Properties

 

Molecular formula

 

C8H10N4O2

 

Molar mass

 

194.19 g/mol

 

Exact mass

 

194.080376 u

 

Appearance

 

Odorless, white needles or powder

 

Density

 

1.23 g/cm3, solid

 

Melting point

 

227–228 °C (anhydrous); 234–235 °C (monohydrate)

 

Boiling point

 

178 °C subl.

 

Solubility in water

 

2.17 g/100 ml (25 °C)
18.0 g/100 ml (80 °C)
67.0 g/100 ml (100 °C)

 

Acidity (pKa)

 

−0.13–1.22[1]

 

Dipole moment

 

3.64 D (calculated)

 

1.4.2 CLASSIFICATION OF CAFFEINE

Caffeine can be classified as an alkaloid, a term used for substances produced as end products of nitrogen metabolism in some plants. The chemical formula is C 8 H 10 N 4 O 2 . Caffeine has a molar mass of 194.19 grams (6.85 ounces). It is soluble in water and in many organic solvents, and it appears in pure form as white crystals.

1.4.3 SOLUBILITY OF CAFFEINE

Caffeine is not a highly water soluble substance and, therefore, has a moderately slow release from

chewing gum. Caffeine is 2.1% soluble in water at room temperature, 15% soluble in water at 80oC, and

40% soluble in boiling water.

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT

Not What You Are Looking For?



For QUICK Help Call Us Now!

+234 813 2926 373

+234 701 5050 881


Here's what our amazing customers are saying

Emmanuel Essential
Kogi state University
I actually took the risk,you know first time stuff But i was suprised i received as requested. I love you guys 🌟 🌟 🌟 🌟
Very Good
Azeez Abiodun
Moshood Abiola polytechnic
I actually googled and saw about iproject master, copied the number and contacted them through WhatsApp to ask for the availability of the material and to my luck they have it. So there was a delay with the project due to the covid19 pandemic. I was really scared before making the payment cause I’ve been scammed twice, they attended so well to me and that made me trust the process and made the payment and provided them with proof, I got my material in less than 10minutes
Very Good
Gbadamosi Solomon Oluwabunmi
Lasu
Swift delivery within 9 minutes of payment. Thank you project master
Excellent
JONNAH EHIS
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Excellent
MATTHEW NGBEDE
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Excellent
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about iprojectmaster.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Excellent
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Excellent
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.
Excellent

HOW TO GET YOUR COMPLETE PROJECT INSTANTLY

  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on 0813-292-6373 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: (+234) 813-292-6373

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!