Select Currency
Translate this page


Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 76  |  345 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000





Four groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) varieties (SAMNUT 21, SAMNUT 22, SMANUT 23 and SAMNUT 24) were grown in the Botanical garden, Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria to determine the effects of defoliation on the growth and yield of the varieties. The experiments were laid out in a completely randomized design with five treatments (defoliation) levels. The plants were subjected to 5 levels of defoliation: 0 (no defoliation), 25, 50, 75 and 100% at 5 weeks after planting (WAP). The plants were sampled at 4, 7 and 10 WAP for assessment of growth parameters and at harvest the yield parameters were determined. The results of this study revealed that, 75% defoliation increased plant height in most cases. The control and 25% defoliation were found to increase root nodules, shoot and root dry matter, and shoot and root relative growth rate (RGR) in most cases. The 75 and 100% defoliation levels were found to significantly reduce vegetative parameters in groundnut varieties except plant height. The control and 50% defoliation had the highest flower production but flower production decreased with increase in defoliation with 100% defoliation level being the lowest in most cases. Total pods, number of matured pods per plant, haulms weight, pod dry weight and seed weight decreased with increase in defoliation but the number of immatured pods per plant increased with increase in defoliation level. The 25 and 50% defoliation levels were found to increase pod yield and haulms weight respectively but the 100% defoliation level produced the lowest yield in most cases. The data showed that varieties SAMNUT 22 and SAMNUT 21 showed higher values in vegetative parameters and yield parameters than the other varieties. Also, SAMNUT 23 showed the lowest values in both vegetative and yield parameters. In conclusion, the impact of defoliation on both vegetative and yield varies among varieties. The 25 and 50% defoliation increased vegetative and yield parameters in most cases but the 75 and 100% defoliation levels adversely reduced plant development and yield.




1.1 Origin and Classification of Groundnut

Groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) belongs to Family: Fabaceae, Sub-Family: Papilionaceae, Genus: Arachis and Species: hypogaea. It originated from Latin America and was introduced into West Africa by Portuguese traders in the 16th century (Shankarappa et al., 2003; Olawale et al., 2014). The origin of this crop dates back to 350 BC (Hommones, 1994). Hommones, (1994) also reported that, the first probable domestication of groundnut took place in the valley of the Panama and Paraguay River System in the Grain Chaco area of South America and then move to the North America through slave trade.

1.2 Botanical Description

Reports showed that the cultivated groundnuts are divided into two large botanical groups: „Virginia‟ and „Spanish-Valencia‟, on the basis of branching pattern “alternate” and “sequential”. They stated that these cultivars are group within the two branching pattern considered as subspecies. In the „Virginia‟ group, the main stem does not have reproductive axes. Alternating pairs of vegetative and reproductive axes are borne on the laterals branches and on other branches. In the „Spanish- Valencia‟ group, reproductive branches are borne in a series on successive nodes of the cotyledonary and other lateral branches, on which the first branch is always reproductive. Reproductive branches are also borne directly on the main axis at higher nodes (Prasad et al., 2010).

1.3 Requirements for Groundnut Growth

Groundnut is essentially a tropical plant and requires a long and warm growing season. The favourable climate for groundnut is a well-distributed rainfall of at least 500mm during the crop-growing season, and with abundance of sunshine and relatively warm temperature.


Not What You Are Looking For?

For Quick Help Chat with Us Now!

+234 813 292 6373

+233 541 351 187

Here's what our amazing customers are saying

Emmanuel Essential
Kogi state University
I actually took the risk,you know first time stuff But i was suprised i received as requested. I love you guys 🌟 🌟 🌟 🌟
Very Good
Azeez Abiodun
Moshood Abiola polytechnic
I actually googled and saw about iproject master, copied the number and contacted them through WhatsApp to ask for the availability of the material and to my luck they have it. So there was a delay with the project due to the covid19 pandemic. I was really scared before making the payment cause I’ve been scammed twice, they attended so well to me and that made me trust the process and made the payment and provided them with proof, I got my material in less than 10minutes
Very Good
Gbadamosi Solomon Oluwabunmi
Swift delivery within 9 minutes of payment. Thank you project master
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.


  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on 0813-292-6373 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.


How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: (+234) 813-292-6373

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!