Select Currency
Translate this page

PRODUCTION OF STARCH FROM CASSAVA (MAIHOT ESCULANTA) AND ITS CROSS LINKED DERIVATIVES

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-4  |  Pages: 60  |  1693 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000

  DOWNLOAD THE FULL PROJECT

PRODUCTION OF STARCH FROM CASSAVA (Maihot esculanta) AND ITS CROSS LINKED DERIVATIVES

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Starch can be obtained from cassava, sorghum, maize, sago and potatoes. But this project focused on the production of starch from cassava. Starch can be cross-linked a product that will be suitable for noodle, salad cream custard making. Normally it is easier to make this product from corn and potatoe starch, but cassava which is readily available and cheap can be employed to meet the demand of the people. Other synthetic starch produced from cassava includes; carboxymethyl starch (which is produced when one of the hydrogen atom of the starch is replaced by carboxymethyl groups, starch acetate, starch xanthate and hydroxyl alkyl starch. These are used as thickening agents, sterbilizer and emulsifier in products. Cassava starch when treated with phosphate are used in frozen products when they are defrosted to prevent them from dripping. This study investigated the production of starch from cassava and preparation of cross-link derivatives.

LITERATURE REVIEW

1.1    MEANING AND COMPOSITION OF STARCH

Starch is one of the most abundant substances in nature, a renewable and almost unlimited resource with a chemical formula (C6H10O5)n. It is a polysaccharide, a chain of many glucose molecules. It is the most carbohydrate stored in roots and seeds of plants.[1] There are two types of glucose chain in starch which are the amylose and amyloeptin.

1.2.1 COMPLEX BRANCH CHAIN (AMILOPECTIN)

Amylopectins are made up of several million glucose units. It forms branched structures with about 30 glucose units in a chain between branches. This makes the molecule somewhat stripped in appearance with the knotted branch point in all rows and smooth chain separating them. These molecules are so large that this stripped appearance show up under a light microscope forming what appears to be ‘growth rings’ in the starch grain.[2] OH OH 1.0 

1.1.2 AMYLOSE CHAIN

Amylose chain tend to curl up into tielice (spirals) with the hydrophobic part inside. This allows them to trap oil and fat inside the helix as well as aroma molecules.[2]

1.1.3 STARCH GELATINIZATION

WHAT IS GELATINIZATION?

This is a colloidal structure that is, it has interparticle bonds (usually hydrogen bonds) or lower potential energy than starch in true solution[3]. Starch gelatinization is a process that breaks down the intermolecular bonds of starch molecules in the presence of water and heat, allowing the hydrogen bonding and oxygen sites (the hydroxyl) to engage more water. This irreversibly dissolves in starch granules. Penetration of water increases randomness in the general granule structure and decreases the number and size of crystalline regions [4]. Hence crystalline region do not allow water entry. Heat causes such region to be diffused so that the chain begin to separate into an amorphous form. This process is used in cooking to make roux sauce, pastery custard or popcorn.[5]

1.1.4 GELATINIZATION PROCESS

Gelatinization is also known as the thickening of a liquid, the starch or flour granules absorb the liquid. When heated, the grains/granules swell and burst releasing the starch into liquid[6]

1.1.5 STARCH RETRO GRADATION

This is a reaction that takes place in gelatinized starch when the amylose and amylopectin chain realign themselves causing the liquid to gelatinize.[3] When native starch is heated and dissolves in water, the crystalline structure of amylose and amylopectic molecules are lost and they hydrate to form a viscous solution. If the viscous solution is cooled at lower temperature for long enough period, the linear molecule amylose and the lower part of amylopectin molecule retrograde and rearrange themselves again to a more crystalline structure. Hence, retrogradation can expel water from the polymer network. This is a process known as SYNERESIS. A small amount of water can be seen on top of the gel. Retrogradation is directly related to stalling or aging  of bread [3]

1.2.0   SOURCES OF STARCH

Cassava starch

Maize starch

Sorghum starch

Sago starch

Potatoe starch

1.2.1 CASSAVA STARCH (Manihot esculanta)

Cassava starch has many remarkable characteristics including high paste viscosity, high paste clarity and high freeze-thaw stability which are advantageous to many industries. Several workers have reported the production of starch and its cross linked derivation [7]. This report described the principle of using cassava starch to produce some vital products because cassava are readily available and cheap. Hence, they are available at low cost [8]. Over the years, the ability to produce some synthetic starch from cassava has been reported in literature and this includes crosslinked starch, carboxyl methyl starch, starch acetate, starch xanthate etc.

1.2.2 ORIGIN, TYPES AND COMPOSITION OF CASSAVA STARCH

Cassava is a staple crop that is particularly important in South America, America and African countries[9]. It is a perennial shrub that grows to approximately 2 meters tall and has the ability to grow on a  marginal land in low-nutrient soil where other crops do not grow well. It is also fairly drought tolerant. It is grown for its enlarged starch rich tuberous roots. Although cassava is a staple crop, it is poisonous in its raw state as the plant contains cyanogenic glucoside. These glucosides are converted to HCN by enzymes called Linamarase which is present in cassava and acts on the glucosides when the plant cell are ruptured during the consumption stage. The amount of cyanide contained in cassava depends on the variety and stage of the cassava. There are two types of cassava [9].

Bitter cassava (Manihot utilissiana)

Sweet Cassava (Manihot patinate)

The bitter cassava has a higher level of cyanide than the sweet cassava. The poison tends to be more concentrated in the skin of the root and can be readily removed during processing resulting in a safe and versatile product.

1.2.3 ADVANTAGES OF CASSAVA STARCH

High level of purity

Excellent thickening characteristics

A neutral taste

Desirble textural characteristics

A relatively cheap source of raw material containing a high concentration of starch that can equal or surpass the properties offered by other starches.

Appropriate composition of the cassava tube [10]

TABLE 1.0 APPROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF THE CASSAVA TUBER

Starch

Protein     

20 – 30%

2 – 3%

Water 95 – 80% Fat 0.1% Fibre 1.0% Ash  1 – 1.5%

Nigeria is the world’s largest producer of cassava (F.A.O of the United Nations). However based on the statistics from F.A.O of the United Nation, Thiland is the largest exporting country of dried cassava with total of 77% of world export in 2005.

1.3.0   TYPES OF STARCH

Native Starch

Synthetic/Modified Starch

1.3.1  DEFINITION AND REASONS FOR STARCH MODIFICATION

This native starch that has been changed in its physical and chemical properties. This can be used for other industrial application through series of techniques, chemical, physical and enzymatic modification[11]. Modification may involve altering the form of granules or changing the shape and amylopectin molecules. It is carried out on the native starch to confer it with properties needed for specific uses. Which are;To modify looking characteristics (gelatinization).

To reduce reterogradation.

To reduce paste’s tendency to gelatinize.

  DOWNLOAD THE FULL PROJECT

Not What You Are Looking For?



For Quick Help Chat with Us Now!

+234 814 010 7220

+233 541 351 187


Here's what our amazing customers are saying

Emmanuel Essential
Kogi state University
I actually took the risk,you know first time stuff But i was suprised i received as requested. I love you guys 🌟 🌟 🌟 🌟
Very Good
Azeez Abiodun
Moshood Abiola polytechnic
I actually googled and saw about iproject master, copied the number and contacted them through WhatsApp to ask for the availability of the material and to my luck they have it. So there was a delay with the project due to the covid19 pandemic. I was really scared before making the payment cause I’ve been scammed twice, they attended so well to me and that made me trust the process and made the payment and provided them with proof, I got my material in less than 10minutes
Very Good
Gbadamosi Solomon Oluwabunmi
Lasu
Swift delivery within 9 minutes of payment. Thank you project master
Excellent
JONNAH EHIS
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Excellent
MATTHEW NGBEDE
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Excellent
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about iprojectmaster.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Excellent
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Excellent
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.
Excellent

HOW TO GET YOUR COMPLETE PROJECT INSTANTLY

  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on +234 814 010 7220 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: +234 814 010 7220

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!