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DETERMINATION OF ALKALI CONTENT IN SOME AGRICULTURAL WASTE PRODUCT SUCH AS COCOA POD HUSK, PLANTAIN PEEL AND PALM FRUIT BUNCH

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 65  |  1466 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000

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DETERMINATION OF ALKALI CONTENT IN SOME AGRICULTURAL WASTE PRODUCT SUCH AS COCOA POD HUSK, PLANTAIN PEEL AND PALM FRUIT BUNCH

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study

Lubricating grease is produced by dispersing thickening agents in mineral or synthetic oil.  Several thickening agents exist but soap-base is the most popular. Several soap bases like sodium, lithium, calcium, aluminum etc. are used in lubricating grease production. Soap comprises of the metallic salts of long chain monocarboxylic acids. Generally, soap making is based on alkaline hydrolysis of fat and oil in a reaction known as saponification, according to the equations (1.1) and (1.2).

These soaps give different properties to the grease and they have different formulations, structure, and characteristics. Other thickening agents include Organoclay, Polymer, Silica etc. All these soaps are formulated from manufactured alkalis.  However, there is a prospect of formulating lubricating grease from alkalis derived from the ashes of agricultural waste such as plantain peel, since local soap production has been achieved using these alkalis as reported by Nwoko, (1980) and Onyegbado et. al (2002).  According to Adewuji, et al (2008), several agricultural wastes of vegetable origin yield high potash when combusted. These materials include plantain peels, cassava peels, palm bunch, wood, cocoa pod, banana leaves, maize cob, wood, sugar beet waste and many others.  When these materials are burnt in air, the resulting ashes contain oxides of potassium and sodium which when dissolved in water yield the corresponding hydroxides (equations 1.3 and 1.4). These agricultural wastes are readily and locally available in abundance.  

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