THE IMPACT OF BIO-DATA OF DRIVERS ON THE LEVEL ROAD ACCIDENTS IN NIGERIA

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The occurrence of fatal road accidents in Nigeria is alarming. Road accidents in Nigeria overtime have witnessed an unprecedented geometric rise. This has been a major concern to both the populace and the government, this is because a lot of properties loved ones and other valuables have been lost as a result of this malady. Road accidents don’t just occur, they are caused. Given the fact that Nigeria has one of the highest road accidents rate as well as the largest number of death per 10,000 vehicles (Bala 2010), one may be prompted to believe that the level of awareness on the major causes of road traffic accidents is very low among Nigerians. On the contrary, however; Okoro (2010) has shown that Nigerians a well informed on the major causes of accidents. Accidents are defined as anything that happens by chance or anything occurring unexpectedly; Odegbami (2011).

Road traffic accident is therefore an unexpected phenomenon that occurs as a result of the use of vehicles on highways. Accidents can either be fatal; it is fatal when it leads to death of the victims or minor when victims sustain serious injuries whether physical or mental. The dividing line between fatal and minor is however thin. As it has been defined, accident would scarcely give warning although careless drivers should anticipate the consequences of their recklessness. In total, accidents do not just occur but they are majorly brought about by human carelessness, recklessness or negligence. Even when the immediate cause of a road accident is traced to mechanical factor, carelessness in the form of omission to check and maintain the vehicle at the right time would have scarcely contributed. Constant checking and maintenance of the vehicles could avert and imminent accident. Road accidents also occur as a result of one of the following factors: Human factors; Vehicle factors; Road and environmental factors according to AUSTROADS (2015). Driving faster or slower than the flow of traffic-which may or may not come with the posted speed limit-has majorly  been demonstrated to increase the likelihood of crashes, as shown by the Solomon Curve (OOIDA,2013).

The factors of traffic accidents are drivers, the highway and motor vehicles (Aaron 2015). Most traffic accidents often involve the three elements. Most road traffic accidents involve motor vehicles (Stutts and Hunter, 2015). A high proportion of road traffic accidents can be apportioned to bad roads and unsafe human acts. The drunken drivers of motor vehicles make the clearest example (Hijar et al., 2010).

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE GENERAL PROBLEM

The rise in the road traffic accidents in Nigeria has overtime been a cause for major concern. A lot has been said about the age grade, gender, marital status and educational qualification of victims of road traffic study, this also has led us in undertaking this research work with a view to knowing if the biodata of drivers has an effect on how they drive which will ultimately rub off on the level of road traffic accidents in Nigeria.

1.3   AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The impact of biodata of drivers on the level of road accidents in Nigeria is centered on the following objectives:

1.  To know if the victims of road traffic accidents is gender related.

2.  To know if the victims of road traffic accidents is age related.

3.  To know if there is a relationship between marital status of victims and the level of road traffic accidents in Nigeria.

4.  To know if there is a relationship between educational qualification of victims and the level of road traffic accidents in Nigeria.

1.4  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance of the study is to benefit both the research and readers, for it makes for a very interesting and educational reading, since the study will attempt to make everything in detail which will attract readers and researchers. The research hypotheses and date analysis will also enable organization to determine whether or not biodata of drivers has an impact on how they drive which in turn leads to the level of road traffic accidents.

1.5  SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study is on the impact of biodata of drivers in relation to the level of road traffic accidents in Nigeria.

1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

A study of this nature will normally entails investigation into a variety of issues to be able to achieve a comprehensive study of the problems, a lot of constraint would be encountered in form of collection of data, lack of adequate information and scarcity of researchers infrastructures. A principal limitation of this survey is the difficulty in getting accurate information on the biodata of victims of road traffic accidents.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Accident: an unpleasant event, especially in a vehicle, that happens unexpectedly and causes injury, death or damage.

Traffic: the vehicles that are on a road at a particular time.

Fatal: causing or ending in death.

Malady: a serious problem or an illness.

Vehicle: a thing that is used for transporting people or goods from one place to another.

1.8 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

Hypothesis 1

H0:  There is no relationship between the age of victims of road traffic accidents and the level of accidents in Nigeria.

H1:  There is a relationship between the age of victims of road traffic accidents and the level of accidents in Nigeria.

Hypothesis 2

H0:   There is no relationship between the gender of victims of road traffic accidents and the level of accidents in Nigeria.

H1:  There is a relationship between the gender of victims of road traffic accidents and the level of accidents in Nigeria.

Hypothesis 3

H0:  There is no relationship between the educational qualification of victims of road traffic accidents and the level of accidents in Nigeria.

H1:  There is a relationship between the educational qualification of victims of road traffic accidents and the level of accidents in Nigeria.

Hypothesis 4

H0:   There is no relationship between the marital status of victims of road traffic accidents and the level of accidents in Nigeria.

H1:  There is a relationship between the marital status of victims of road traffic accidents and the level of accidents in Nigeria.

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