TELEVISION AS A TOOL FOR NATIONAL INTEGRATION (A CASE STUDY OF N.T.A KADUNA)

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CHAPTER ONE
1.0     INTRODUCTION
Television as a mass medium of communication has become a very important and most effective medium of communication ever since it invention. It synchronous transmission of audio and visual signal enable it to exert enormous influence on the society there by making it more compelling and enable it to command great respect and attention than the other media.   It significance is that it has become a nerve linking the society and its activities together. This explain the reason why government of developing countries, especially Nigeria are enchanted by the power of television, thereby using it to publicize most of their programmes to promote unity and cultural upliftement of the people   Television creates awareness of different life style in a society. In doing this emphasis are placed on similarities in life style and this is beneficial to developing nations like Nigeria where “loyalties rarely extend beyond the village, tribe or religion” and where integration is usually seen as an identification with the larger whole that is the state.   Therefore, television as a tool for national integration plays the role of creating sense of identification through the propagation of common cultural values and symbol, by giving interpretations to events that will aid and promote unity of the nation. However the television medium should desists from interpreting events in such a way that it may give rise to disaffection, inflame tempers and course disunity among the people with diverse cultural norms, belief and values   It can therefore be held that television, due to the role it plays in limiting people with different culture, religion, tribe and even race reflects the value pattern of the society because it determines where and when information flows.   
1.1      HISTORY OF CASE STUDY 
Television broadcasting has since 1954 grown by leaps and bound through out the federation. Barely a year after the establishment of Western Nigeria Television (WNTV). Eastern Nigeria television (ENTV) now NTA Enugu, was established by the then governor of former Eastern region in 1962 the Northern  regional government joined inter – alia in the formation of the radio Kaduna television (RKTV) from which the F.R.C.N and N.T.A Kaduna evolved from.   Nigeria television Authority (NTA) Kaduna was excised from the former broadcasting corporation of northern Nigeria (BCNN) which was established by decree No 21 of 31st March 1962, the decree took effect from April 1st 1976.   The station has 10 kilometer each cover to down south of Kaduna, Malumfashi in Katsina state and part of Kano State. The transmitter operates on 4 bands 1 VHF, transmitter which is situated at No 99, Isah Kaita Road Kaduna, and was commission in 1993 and covers up to Kafanchan, Saminaka and Birnin Gwari. The transmitter could be said to cover three quarter of the land area of Kaduna.  
1.2      STATEMENT OF GENERAL PROBLEM
One of the challenges faced in this term paper is the problem of effective information dissemination to those to be integrated Another problems is that Nigeria has so many ethnic diversities. Thus, there is this problem of identifying with all this diversities which has in the past led to lack of religious and cultural tolerance among the people therefore breeding violence of all sorts.   Also one of the problems faced in this term paper is that the Nigeria cultures is not well preserved due to contact with foreign culture therefore the issue of transmitting our cultural heritage effective pose a very great problem.   Furthermore, people of Nigerian don’t really appreciate each other culture due to the high level of illiteracy dominant in the country and also people are ignorant of other people culture and see them as barbaric.”   Therefore the media, particularly television must be used to enlighten people through their programmes that reflect cultural values of people cutting across the state.
1.3      AIMS AND OBJECTIVE
The study is aimed at looking into the various roles of television as an effective tool for national integration this study is also geared toward finding out the effects of television programmes on individuals with different culture, beliefs, religion, norms etc. living in a particular nation.   Furthermore, this study is carried out to know the impact of television message on it audience in relation to other media of mass communication. This study is also carried out to make people see the importance of television in national integration.   It is also designed to see how NTA Kaduna uses it programmes to ensure unity in diversity and on the larger whole integration of people of Nigeria with diverse culture and beliefs.   Finally, another problems faced in the compilation of this term paper are the problem of getting the relevant materials for the term paper. Books found in our libraries have no much bearing on the Topic. As a result of this addition effort has to be employed to aid the successful completion of this work.  
1.4      HYPOTHESIS/RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The research question are as follow: -
1.     Does television serve as a tool for national integration?
2.     What are the effects of television programmes on its audience?
3.     Is television message very effective?
1.5      FOCUS, SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The focus of this term paper is to show the effectiveness of television as a tool for national integration. This term paper is also centered on the influence and impact of television on member of the society and how it sharpen their selection and knowledge of each other’s culture.   It is limited to Kaduna due to time and financial constraint required to cover the entire country.  
1.6      THEORETICAL FRAME WORK
To support this research work will close reference to the field of mass communication one will like to use the Harold D. Lasswell’s Broad generalization of media functions
-          Correlation of the society    
-          Surveillance of the society
-          Transmission of cultural heritage.
Simplified as education, information, enlightenment, socialization and entertainment by other scholars like C.W. mills and Charles Wright represent the basic functionalist approach to media role in the society.   Functionalist theory view the different institution of society as  a component of a whole with each component contributing towards maintaining the whole.   In the functionalist analysis, each of the institution of society has a specific function to perform in order to maintain equilibrium in the society. Functionalist scholar therefore divides the role of the media into two levels namely.   Societal Level and level of individual.
Surveillance: At the level of society. The mass media (Television) is responsible for warning society on dangers and opportunity e.g. News related to economy, advantages, the viability and otherwise of a country’s socio cultural system and development plans.
At The Level Of Individual The media (television) warns individual on emergencies of disease e.g HIV, Crime, Source Mode and solution.
Correlation: -  At the level of society the media and mobilization of social  and reduce treat to social stability by facilitating consensus especially on controversial issues. E.g Sharia debate etc.
Correlation: (at individual level.) The media helps to provide efficient assimilation of news and reduce apathy and individualism through sharing of views.
Transmission of Social/Cultural Heritage: - The mass media (Television) in any nation or society serves as the forum for the different segments or opining groups’ that constitute the wholes to deliberate and arrive at certain consensus on what to do. Since societal norms and value change with the passage of time, some means of reaching agreement on what those changes shall be necessary for without agreement. Social organization may breakdown. While simple society may reach consensus through face – face, modern complex societies rely on the mass media of a society. Similarly, the mass media of a society serve the teacher that (Socialises) passes social heritage to future generation.   In line with the above television can therefore be used to survey correlate and transmit social heritage that may aid integration.  
1.7      DEFINITION OF TERMS 
TELEVISION: The Webster’s dictionary defines television as the exact and continues transmission of audio and visual image, still or in motion but without permanent recording. For instantaneous viewing at a distance: effected by a combine optical and electrical system for converting waves into corresponding electrical impulses which are converted into their visual form in a receiving set.  
MEANS:   This is simple a way through which something is passed across.
TOOL:  Anything that aid in doing as top or completing a process.
NATION:  The oxford dictionary defines nation as a large community of people sharing common history, culture and language and living in a particular territory under one government.
INTEGRATION: Oxford dictionary define integration as combining two or more things in such a way that one because fully. Part of the other.
COHESION:  This means helping coursing something or people to stick together mass media This refers to the various channels through which information get to the audience e.g. TV, Radio and Newspapers, Magazine, Internet etc.       

REFERENCE
1.    PHILIP, D. (1982);          Media system and effect, second edition (CBS Publication)
2.    SALAMA, G. (1980);    Television in a developing country; (Jos : published by the Nigerian television authority, ).
3.    Mc QUAIL, (1970);       The Audience For Television; (London .J. media Sociology” constable)
4.    CURRANT, J. (1977);  Mass communication and society (London: Open University)
5.    SHAUIBU, F. (2006);    Mass Media and Society; (Kaduna: Polytechnic CABS) Unpublished.

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