EFFECTS OF MASS MEDIA ON YORUBA CULTURE AND TRADITION

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CHAPTER ONE  
INTRODUCTION  
What are the effects of foreign-produced entertainment programs on the knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, values and traditions of Yoruba radio and television viewers? Some studies suggest that these programs erode the traditional values of indigenous cultures; others argue that audiences are not passive dupes of the foreign ideology, and are capable of negotiating the messages in foreign media. This study attempts to resolve these differences by focusing on the effects of mass media on Yoruba culture and traditions; a case study of Erin Osun community Yoruba youth.   The term culture has been defined differently by different people. The different definitions attached to culture are based on the differences in the orientation of the people. According to Ekeh (1989), culture is construct used in an attempt to analyze and integrate events and ideas in broad spectrum of areas of society. Jekayinka (502), states that from wider perspective, culture includes the total repertoire of human action which are socially transmitted from generation to generation.
Obiora (502), says the transformation of culture is gradual and not sudden. He (502), contends that culture is a continuous process of change. It changes exactly the same way as the human being change. It is dynamic, learned, acquired, transmitted or diffused through contact or means of communication flow from generation to another. The Nigerian culture is observed to be fading out as a result of the acceptance and adaptation of the modernist’s solution on to underdevelopment. One of such theories which relates to this subtle method of assault international communication is given by Lerner (1956).   Scholars have often attributed the erosion of native cultures in the third world to many factors.
Globalization, for instance, a trend often cited in discussions of the effects of foreign media, may serve to explain the move toward a "global culture," but some critics (see Olalekan 1991) are unswayed by arguments in favor of globalization, nor are they persuaded that recent developments in the third world are just a "consequence of modernity": such critics would prefer to look to the mass media-hegemony explanation instead. What effects may mass media entertainment programs have on the Nigerian audience specifically the Yorubas? Can exposure to mass media-produced entertainment programs alter the knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, attitudes, and cultural values of Yorubas? Or are Yoruba youth capable of negotiating these programs? Are Yoruba youth likelier to submit to pulls by homogenizing forces? Or likelier to resist cultural influence from abroad? These are the concerns of this research project, which seeks to probe the relevance of the cultural-imperialism thesis with regard to media effects in Nigeria. The thesis has at its roots the assumption that authentic traditional cultures are being destroyed by commercial products from countries like the United States (Tunstall 1977).    
1.1     STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM  
The influence of mass media on the cultural values of Yoruba community   have been said to be a serious problem facing Yoruba community. Some of these   problems are:  
1.       Inadequate policy to guard the Yoruba community towards foreign forms of mass media.  
2.       There is an erosion of the cultural values.  
3.       The imitation of Western cultures especially the mass media  cultures.  
4.       The Yoruba community are faced with brain wash.  
5.       Therefore, if the above problems are not been taking care off, it will lead to a total destruction of the Nigerians culture.  
1.2     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY  
The researcher’s objective is to conduct an in-depth research on the   influence of mass media on the cultural values of the Yoruba community with an insight to determine its implication to the cultural values of the people of Erin Osun commuinity are:  
1.       To show how the contents of Western radio and television and radio programme affects Nigerian people of Erin Osun Community.  
2.       To examines its pervasive impact on the cultural values of Nigerian University student.   3.   To know how to isolate mass media from Nigeria.
1.3     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY  
1.       The research will help in possible dilution, domination and finally absorption of the African/Nigerian culture which until the present has been characterized with good neighbourliness, respect for elders, virtuousness, community orientation and collectivism.  
2.        It will enable the government and policy makers to put adequate measures in place to check the movement of mass media into Nigeria.  
3.        It will help remove the idea of imitating Western cultures or ways of life from Nigeria.  
4.       The conduct of this research will enable the government to know what role the media can play in the development of a country and therefore, harness the mass media especially programmes and adverts on TV, radio and other forms of mass media in the democratic process and development process in general.    
1.4      RESEARCH QUESTIONS  
The research questions are arranged questions meant to be asked by the researcher and receives a feedback (answer) from a respondent. For a researcher to achieve her aim, the following question should be used.  
1.    Do Yoruba community expose themselves more to programmes and adverts on TV, radio and other forms of mass media than other media?  
2.    Do they prefer foreign foriegn forms of mass media to locally produced ones and why if yes?  
3.    Do Yoruba community identify more with locally or foreign programmes and adverts on TV, radio and other forms of mass media stars as models?  
4.    Will improvement of local programmes and adverts on TV, radio and other forms of mass media/ improve Yoruba community preference for local programmes and adverts on TV, radio and other forms of mass media product?    
1.5      RESEARCH HYPOTHESES  
HI: More exposure to programmes and adverts on TV, radio and other forms of mass media lead to identification of Western programmes and adverts on TV, radio and other forms of mass media stars as models.
Ho: More exposure to programmes and adverts on TV, radio and other forms of mass media do not lead to identification of Western programmes and adverts on TV, radio and other forms of mass media stars as models.  
Hi: The improvement of local programmes and adverts on TV, radio and other forms of mass media / will increase Yoruba community preference for local programmes and adverts on TV, radio and other forms of mass media product.  
Ho: The improvement of local programmes and adverts on TV, radio and other forms of mass media/ will not increase Yoruba community preference for local programmes and adverts on TV, radio and other forms of mass media product.      
1.6    SCOPE OF THE STUDY  
The scope of this study is to find out how the mass media affect the Cultural   Values of Yoruba community using Erin Osun in Osun State as a case study. The community is been noted for a constant influence of mass media on their cultural values and traditions. Hence, the need for choosing the community as a case study commenced.   In the cause of the research, oral interview were consulted on both people of the community. But the research depends more on the questionnaire which were distributed to people of the community and were completed and returned. The researcher also consulted some textbooks, Newspapers and journals which provided a lot of information pertaining to the study.  
1.7    ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY  
The following were the assumption of this study:  
1.      A greater number of Nigerian youths watch programmes and adverts on TV, radio and other forms of mass media.  
2.      Foreign forms of mass media have a greater appeal to Nigerian youths than locally produced programmes.
3.      That the programmes contents of Western programmes and adverts on TV, radio and other forms of mass media project symbiotic forms of social reality.  
4.     The Western programmes and adverts on TV, radio and other forms of mass media is having a greater acculturation on Nigerian youths in particular and on Yoruba community in general.  
5.     That the improvement of local programmes and adverts on TV, radio and other forms of mass media/ will change Yoruba community attitudes towards foriegn forms of mass media.    
1.8      LIMITATION OF THE STUDY  
Though this research work is on the influence of mass media on the cultural valves of Yoruba community; it is limited to Erin Osun in Osun State community Irepodun Local Government, Osun State, fifty questionnaires that were distributed to them. This is because of time and resource, had it been that time and resource were available similar studies would have been done in other private University/ schools in the country so as to ensure a more embracing result.  
1.9    CONCEPTIONAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF THE TERMS.  
1.   Youth:  
Conceptual:          It means young people.   Operational: It is defined as youths in various Universities in Nigeria and who fall between the ages of 15 -10  
2.    Media:  
Conceptual: The means of giving news and opinions to large number of people.   Operational: The media is operationalised as programmes and adverts on TV, radio and other forms of mass media. Broadcast used to generate or circulate information to the public.  
3.   Cultural identify:  
Conceptual: it is the self definition, self perception and self- image of a person as a member of a group exhibiting uniform culture that are consistent with the values of that group.   
Operational: It is those commonly shares socio-political interpretation and meanings related to the beliefs, norms, values, attitudes and behaviours within Nigeria.  
4.  Cultural dominance:  
Conceptual: This refers to nations of neocolonialism that uses policy and practice that have effect to dominate the culture and affairs of less developed countries.  
Operational: it means the conscious and unconscious domination by Western programmes and adverts on TV, radio and other forms of mass media media on the media system of Nigeria.

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