EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION AS A TOOL FOR ACHIEVING ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Basically, communication touch every sphere of human activity, it informs or better still disseminate information/message to target audience. One of the peculiarities of the human race is communication among the members of the society. Communication is an essential attribute of human behaviour . In deed, communication is perhaps man’s most important singular activity because every other human activity  revolves around communication.   Animals and trees also communicate, but it is man’s ability to create symbol, ascribe meanings and interpret messages that elevate him above the status of the lower animals and gives form and character to his existence. All organizations encourage effective communication by having established channels (formal and informal) of transmitting information to people. In all enterprises, effective organization channel is required to transmit company policies, programmes, rules and regulations. It is also required in dealing with customers, regulatory agencies and the generals public.
It is through good communication with business owners, board of directors, management, peers and subordinates that an organization maintains goodwill, grows and waxes.   Communication also serves as an instrument of social interrelation. It help us understand ourselves, to keep in touch with other people, to understand them and to  predict their response to situation, its means by which power is acquired, exercised and sustained. It is the medium through which relationship are established, extended and maintained, it provides a means by which people in business policies make decision and management and materials. In business and industry, communication helps to orient workers to work with one another and to achieve the good goals of the organization, and it is the means by which such goals can be pursued, attained sustained and improved.   It is the lubricant that keep the machinery of an organization functioning. It is the means through which roles are identified and assigned, it is the life blood of an organization.  
The above brief historical consideration of communication emphasize its importance in human existence. To organize is to communicate; thus, no organization can survive without communication.   The effect of marketing communication is an organization can be measured in terms of attitude and performance for it affects the morale of the employees, and their attitude towards the organizational productivity.  
1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Most business organization today have failed in their bid to satisfy their potential customers not in quality or quantity of such goods and services provided but in terms of creating adequate awareness and enlightenment to its customers.   Before a product is made available for its market, organizations should determine which methods to be used to communicate it to the potential customers. The task involves the use of effective communication between marketing firm and it target audience. It is through communication that marketers are able to inform the target audience about their product, it price, performance, where it can be purchased e.t.c.  
In communicating a product, marketers are faced with both controllable and uncontrollable problems such as the product, price, promotion, competitors, economy of the nation e.t.c. To solve these problems, organization should put up a communication message that will attract attention, hold interest, arouse desire, and elicit action by choosing the most efficient means of getting their message across to their target audience, or potential customers.  
1.3       OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study constitute the following;
(i)           To assess the effect of communication in the field of management.
(ii)          To identify the existing communication barriers in an organization.
(iii)        To understand the objective of communication and the communication system.
(iv)        To find out what communication is all about, how it is done. What instruments are used and what qualities can make a system of communication are effective in an organization.
(v)         To identify the problems of ineffective communication and to suggest and recommend possible solution so as to achieve a better communication network in an organization.  
1.4    STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
The following hypothesis are formulated to guide the course of this study.
H0:    Effective communication does not serve as a tool for achieving           organization goals and objectives.  
Hi:     Effective communication serves as a tool for achieving organization goals and objectives.  
1.5    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study intends to find out the impact effective communication has on the organization and how it aids in achieving business objectives.   The study is also important to managers to know how to achieve business objectives through the implementation of an effective communication system.  The Nigerian Television Authority can utilize this study to make amendments or control a number of lapses that may be affecting the organization, in terms of communication method adopted in managing the activities.  
This study is significant because it will serve as a reference point to business practitioners, students and consultants who are writing on the subject matter. It is also important because it is a requirement for the award of Higher National Diploma (HND) in Human Resource Management (HRM) of Kaduna Polytechnic.  
1.6    SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research work attempts to cover the flow and concept of communication system and how it has been or/and should be applied to a business organisation. The researcher limits the scope of the study to The Nigerian Television Authority, Kaduna, their products, the communication channels and the consumers in gathering the relevant data needed for the study to be accurate, direct and reliable.  
1.7    LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
It is a phenomenon that, in any research where the primary objective is to research for the true fact, a research project of this nature is never conducted without some inherent factors that may make the findings difficult. The limitation may however include:
(i)            Financial constraint
(ii)           Lack of cooperation from respondents
(iii)          Time factor In the process of undertaking this research work, the cost involved in transporting, gathering data for processing information, and the production of material is needed cannot be overemphasized.  
Inadequate time is another factor owing to the fact that officers of the company have little time to give me attention while others pay no attention at all. There is also little time in gathering of data for this project work. The problem of secrecy on the part of organizations where they hide out some fact which they believe are sensitive to there operation and because of the fear they may have against competitors is also a constraint.  
1.8    HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE CASE STUDY
The history of Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) can be traced back to 31st October 1959 when the Western Nigerian Television (WNTV) blamed alive the First television signals in Nigeria. Barely a year after, in 1960, the eastern Nigerian Television (ENTV) came into existence. The Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) Kaduna was carved out from the former broadcasting company of Northern Nigerian (BCNN) which was established by decree No. 24 of 31st march 1962, but became an entity from 1st April, 1976. The station has its transmitters located at No. 99 Isah Kaita road Kaduna. The history of NTA Kaduna will no be complete without the mention of Decree 38 of 1992 which establish the national broadcasting commission (NBC) and also deregulated the national broadcast industry thus allowing individuals to acquire television stations with NBC as a regulation body. This led to partial commercialization of NTA.
NTA Kaduna is divided into six department which are as follows: ·        Programmes department
·        News and current affairs department
·        Engineering department
·        Administrative department
·        Finance department
·        Marketing department      
1.9    DEFINITION OF TERMS
Communication;- The exchange of messages between people to achieve common meanings.
Effective;-Achieving a desired objective.
Productivity;- The output ration within a given period with due consideration for quality.
Information;- A fact or detail about something
Message;- A piece of information written or spoken to someone.
Management;- The people who are in charge of  integrating organizational resources to achieve stated goals and objectives.
Attitude: A person’s enduring favorable and unfavorable evaluation, emotional feeling and action tendency towards a product.
Delivery:  How well the product or service is delivered to the customers.
Features: are things that enhance the basic functions of a product.
Image: are set of beliefs, ideas and impression that a persons holds regarding a product.
Organization: is a company’s structure, policies and corporate culture.
Service: can be referred to as any act or performs that one party can offer that is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything.
Selective Distortion: is the tendency to interpret product information in a way that fit consumers perceptions.
Strategy: is a company’s game plan for achieving its goal.

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