PRODUCTION OF MOSQUITOE REPELLANTS INSECTICIDES (MOSQUITO COIL) USING ORANGE PEELS, CESTRUM

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-4  |  Pages: 55  |  710 Users found this project useful  |  Price ₦3,000

  DOWNLOAD FULL PROJECT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0     INSECTICIDES (General Overview)

Insecticide is a substance or a mixture of substances used for killing insects. It is well known fact that many protozoal bacteria diseases are transmitted from man to man by insects. One may combat these diseases not only by means of prohylactic drugs but also by the destruction of the insects carriers. Insecticide is a chemical compound that is lethally toxic to insects either by ingestion or by body contact. It is applied to vegetation, crops and insect breeding areas either as liquid spray or as dry powder. They are used in agriculture, medicine, industry and household. The use of insecticides is believed to be one of the major factors behind the increase in agricultural productivity in 20th century.          
Nearly, all insecticides have the potential to significantly after ecosystem, many are toxic to human and others are concentrated in food chain. It is necessary to balance agricultural needs with environmental and health issues when using insecticides. It is crucially important that all the rural areas in Nigeria are being educated on the need to eradicate insects especially mosquitoes that might breed around the environment and transmit malaria to people living within the enclave. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in the home being with restricting the availability of insects of three vital commodities; shelter, water and food. If insects become a problem despite such measures, IPM seeks to control them using the safest possible methods targeting the approach to the particular pest. Years now, efforts are geared towards controlling malaria infestation both in urban and rural areas. A lot of measures are being taken to reduce the number of death as a result of malaria. We hear now and then that numbers being quoted by the analyst that died of malaria attack. Thus, free mosquitoes treated nets are always distributed to families and individuals all in a bid to reduce malaria attack from mosquito bite. In the light of this, it is necessary to study God-given substances in this case, plant that has embedded substances that will help man combat mosquitoes or at least reduce infestation to the barest minimum.

1.1   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY/WORK

The purpose of this work is to produce mosquito repellants using orange peels (cestrum) wastes perse, which will save the cost of production and purchase, thereby increasing its availability especially in the rural areas. If the work is successful, production of mosquitoes repellants using orange peels will provide source of employment to our teaming youths and also make mosquito repellant within the reach of everybody, thereby reducing the number of death due to malaria caused by mosquito bite.

1.2      SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Orange peels (cestrum) will be prepared and used for the production of mosquito coil, which ignited, will repel mosquitoes within the limit of the smoke. The produced coil will be tested for the effectiveness performance. Cost analysis should also be taken to know weather mass production will be more effective or not.
1.3     LITERATURE REVIEW
1.3.1    HISTORY ASPECT OF MOSQUITO REPELLENT
Traditionally, various types of substances have been used to repel mosquitoes. These include such things as smoke, plant extracts, oil, tars, muds, etc. As insects repellants technology became more sophisticated, individual compounds were discovered and isolated. This allows the formulation of new and more efficient forms of mosquito repellants. The first truly effective active ingredient used in mosquito repellants was citronella oil. This material is a herbal extract derived from the citronella plant, an Asian grass. While citronella has been used for centuries for medical purposes, its repellence was only accidentally discovered in 1901, when it was used as a hairdressing fragrance. Since citronella oil is a fragrant material, it is thought that the chemical terpenes of which it is composed are responsible for its repellant activity.
Citronella oil does repel mosquitoes, but it has certain characteristics which limit its effectiveness. For example, it is very volatile and evaporates so quickly from the surface to which it is applied. Also, large amount are needed to be effective. The disadvantages of using citronella oil prompted researchers to study alternative synthetic compounds many of the early attempt at creating synthetic insect repellants were initiated by the Unites State military. Out of this research, the discovery of the repellant dimethylphthalate in 1929. This material showed a good level of effectiveness against certain insect species, but it was ineffective against others. Indalone was found to repel insect in 1937 and Rutgers 612 (2-ethyl-1,3-hexane diol) was synthesized soon after. Like dimethylpthalate, these materials had certain limitations which prevented their widespread use. Since none of the available materials were ideal repellents, research into new synthetic materials continued. In 1955, scientists synthesized DEET (n-n-diethyl-netatoluamide) currently the most widely used active ingredient for mosquito repellents. After its discovery, repellent manufacturers developed many different forms in which to deliver DEET, such as creams, lotions and aerosols[4].          
1.3.2    CLASSIFICATION OF INSECTICIDE
Insecticides are usually classified into the following three classes.
STOMACH OR INTERNAL INSECTICIDES: These insecticides which are taken up by the insects are called stomach poisons or insecticides. Example, Boric acid.
CONTACT OR EXTERNAL INSECTICIDES:  These insecticides destroy the insect simply by external bodily contact. Example Rotenone.      
FUMIGANTS:  These insecticides act on the insects through the respiratory system. Example hydrogen cyanide, carbon disulphide, nicotine, p-dichlorobenzene, etc. Insecticides may be applied as a spray, liquid or in suspension, as a dust or as a gas.
1.3.3    CHEMICAL INSECTICIDES MAY BE CLASSIFIED AS INORGANIC, NATURAL AND ORGANIC INSECTICIDES. INORGANIC INSECTICIDES
Before world war II nearly all the insecticides were inorganic compounds of which arsenic, fluorine, sulphur and cyanide compounds were the most important. In recent years, inorganic insecticides have been greatly displaced by organic compounds in many applications.           The major disadvantage of inorganic insecticides is their comparable toxicity to man and other warm blooded animals. Upon handling and so as residues on food products.
SOME INORGANIC INSECTICIDES ARE;
·                 Lead Arsenate
·                 Calcium Arsenate
·                 Paris green
·                 Flourine compounds
·                 Sulphur and sulphur compounds
·                 Hydrocyanide acid 
NATURAL OR PLANT INSECTICIDES          
Plant materials yield some of the most widely used insecticides and many of them are being supplemented by the synthetic organic insecticides. The roots stem, leaves or flowers may be finely grounded and used as such or active parts may be extracted and used either alone or with other toxicants and auxiliary materials.
SOME NATURAL INSECTICIDES ARE
·                 Nicotine
·                 Rotenone
·                 Allethrin
·                 Pyrethrins  
ORGANIC INSECTICIDES          
A typical organic insecticide is DDT (Dichlor-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane) with IUPAC name 4,4-(2,2,2-trichloroethane-1,1-diyl) bis chlorobenzene.

  DOWNLOAD FULL PROJECT

Not What You Are Looking For?



For QUICK Help Call Us Now!

+234 813 292 6373


Here's what our amazing customers are saying

JONNAH EHIS
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Excellent
MATTHEW NGBEDE
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Excellent
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about iprojectmaster.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Excellent
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Excellent
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.
Excellent
Merry From BSU
I am now a graduate because of iprojectmaster.com, God Bless you guys for me.
Excellent
Samuel From Ajayi Crowther University
You guys just made life easier for students. Thanks alot iprojectmaster.com
Excellent
Musa From Ahmadu Bello University
Thank you iprojectmaster for saving my life, please keep it up and may God continue to bless you people.
Excellent

HOW TO GET YOUR COMPLETE PROJECT INSTANTLY

  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on 0813-292-6373 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: (+234) 813-292-6373

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!