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THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL AND SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES AMONG UNIFORM MEN
Alcohol consumption and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been a global challenge that confronts most countries of the world. Alcohol as it were has always come with more of negative outcomes. And in considering the correlation between alcohol and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) one would be able to know that it is the outcome effect of it, which one of it is sexual arouse that results into sexually transmitted infections (STIs) which when not immediately managed could results into sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). And in recent time it was observed that most uniform men consume more of alcohol to make them to be pro-active at work and because of the power they have on the general populace, by virtue of their work and the authority conferred on them, they tend to take advantage of others, mostly when under the influence of alcohol, precisely ladies. And because of the alcohol influence they tend to involve themselves in risky behaviour which later results into sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). For this reason, this study wants to investigate the effects of alcohol and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among uniform men. For this study 150 questionnaires were used of which 120 questionnaires were retrieved. The result of the study shows that 72.5% of the respondents take alcohol and 51.7% get aroused sexually after the intake of alcohol and as a result of this, they involve themselves in risky behaviour. 61.7% of the entire respondents said they have contracted an STI before. So for all these effects the study has been able to come up with some recommendations so as to manage the resultant effect of risky behaviour that is sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and to also have consistent orientation programmes on how they can be health conscious at every point in time.
1.0 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Available statistics suggest that the global burden of disease with regard to both alcohol and unsafe sex is considerable. For example, in 1990 alcohol accounted for 3.5 percent of the total Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost globally, and for 2.1 percent of the total years of life lost; unsafe sex accounted for 3.0 percent of the total years of life lost globally (Room et al., 2002: Murray & Lopez, 1996). The respective contributions of alcohol and unsafe sex to the global burden of disease are, furthermore, amplified through the linkages that have been shown to exist between alcohol, risky sexual behaviour (unintended or unprotected sexual contact) and the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV infection.
Sexual risk behaviour accounts for a large number of opportunities for acquiring HIV infection, and alcohol use has been shown to increase high-risk sexual behaviour. Moreover, the social dynamics that surround alcohol use, sexual risk behaviour and HIV infection and interactions between these issues warrant a search for alternative ways of dealing with the problem in diverse socio-cultural settings, if intervention is to be effective. Only by unraveling the social dynamics of alcohol use-related sexual risk behaviour within particular cultural settings can this be achieved. It can be anticipated that the body of knowledge acquired through proven scientifically sound instruments will not only highlight the relevant preventive measures to be adopted but will bring out relevant clinical and experimental research questions to be considered by all disciplines interested in curbing the problem of alcohol use-related sexual risk behaviour with regard to HIV infection.
People with alcohol use disorders are more likely than the general population to contract HIV. Similarly, people with HIV are more likely to abuse alcohol at some time during their lives. (Petry, 1999) Krupitsky et al. Found a rate of 9 percent for alcohol abuse/dependence in hospitalized patients with HIV/AIDS (Krupitsky et al, 2005). Alcohol use is associated with high-risk sexual behaviors and IV drug use which are two major modes of HIV transmission. Alcohol-related problems are a major public health issue. A submission of the studies on alcohol use in Nigeria shows that there has been a rapid increase in alcohol availability and consumption in recent times with young adults in universities and colleges being those mainly concerned. (Abiodun, 1991) Most alcohol-related problems appear in non-alcoholic dependent individuals who fall into the categories of hazardous or harmful drinkers according to the WHO (2000) terminology.
In Nigeria studies have focused on lifetime and current prevalence rates of alcohol use without exploring alcohol-related problems. (Odejide et al, 1997; Adelekan et al, 1999) Adewuya in a sample of University young people found Alcohol related problems in 13.2 percent of subjects of which 9.4 percent had Hazardous drinking, 3.1 percent had Alcohol abuse and 0.74 percent had Alcohol dependence (Adewuya, 2005). There is an urgent need to encourage extensive epidemiological and longitudinal studies of alcohol-related problems in Nigeria in order to accurately determine the populations at risk. Early detection of people with hazardous alcohol intake and time bound interventions aimed at decreasing alcohol consumption and thus the likelihood of harm and dependence is warranted. People who abuse alcohol are more likely to engage in behaviors that place them at risk for contracting or transmitting HIV. A history of heavy alcohol use has been correlated with a lifetime tendency toward high-risk sexual behaviors, including multiple sex partners, unprotected intercourse, sex with high-risk partners (e.g., injection drug users, prostitutes), and the exchange of sex for money or drugs. (Windle, 1999; Avins et al, 1999; Boscarino et ai, 2000; Malow et al, 2001) There may be many reasons for this association. For example, alcohol can act directly on the brain to reduce inhibitions and diminish risk perception. (MacDonald et al, 2000; Fromme et al, 2000; Cooper, 2002) Decreasing alcohol uses among HIV patients not only reduces the medical and psychiatric consequences associated with alcohol consumption but also decreases other drug use and risky sexual behavior and hence reduce HIV transmission (Lucas et al, 2002). Thus, alcohol and other drug abuse treatment can be considered primary HIV prevention as well (Metzger et ai, 1999).
1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The issue of alcohol and sexually transmitted diseases among uniform men is not just happening. This is because in Nigeria a lot of values and ethics in the various institutions as well as in the organs of government and sectors of the society has been polluted. It is a general or global thing the many of the uniform men in the countries of the world are law enforcers who are of various types or kinds across the country. These uniform men are supposed to lead by examples while the generality of the public take after them. But then the reverse is the case that is they are still the ones that are found taking alcohol which invariably arouse their sexual urge and what happen after that is the urge for sex. And when this happens they tend to satisfy the urge any how without being conscious of the fact that they are meant to protect themselves.
In fact, during course of discharging their duties mostly when the military are on rescue mission and they feel the urge of sexual arouse they sometime go into sex with those ladies or women in the place where they have gone for mission without being conscious of protecting themselves. And as a result of this some of them have contracted sexually transmitted infections which had made some of them dead in the place and some have even transfer it to others when they are back home. However, this study is interested in investigating the effect of alcohol consumption and sexually transmitted diseases among these uniform men. Statistics have revealed that all or majority of them take alcohol and as a matter of fact this as it were arouse their sexual urge which sometimes make them get any mean of satisfying the urge or sexual gratification.
1.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
However, the interest in the study has raised the following questions:
1. What are the consequences of the use of alcohol on the officers?
2. What are the various infections that can be contracted by virtue of involving in an unprotected sexual intercourse?
3. What are the attendant effects of unexpected sexual urge on officers?
4. Is there any relationship in the use of alcohol and sexual intercourse?
5. Is there any relationship between the use of alcohol and sexually transmitted infections?
1.3OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To investigate the consequences of the use of alcohol on the officers
2. To know the various infections that can be contracted by virtue of involving in an unprotected sexual intercourse
3. To inquire the attendant effects of unexpected sexual urge on the officers
4. To know if there is a relationship in the use of alcohol and sexual intercourse
5. To know if there is a relationship between the use of alcohol and sexually transmitted infections
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This study is relevant based on the area it intends to cover which is concerned about the use of alcohol and sexually transmitted diseases. This study will investigate the effect that the use of alcohol has caused on uniform men most especially when they are on uniform. The public believe is that they are very powerful and this sometimes give them the power to exercise authority on people even when they are not supposed to obey them but for the fact that they are law enforcement officers they will. This as it were go a long way in influencing ladies and girls to obeying them even when the ladies are not wrong in their actions and this sometimes makes them take advantage of the situation.
Most times when they are under the influence of alcohol they act like irrational being that is forcing ladies into sexual intercourse of commercial sex worker without being conscious of protecting themselves. For this reason this study will educate the uniform men on how they can they can abstain from taking alcohol that can arouse their sexual urge as well as how they can protected themselves from contracting the sexually transmitted infections that later degenerate into sexually transmitted diseases. This study will also educate government, non-government organizations, public and private organization as well as families on the effects of alcohol taking and how it can lure one into unprotected sexual intercourse.
1.5 SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS OF STUDY
This research endeavour will cover areas concerning the effects of alcohol and sexually transmitted diseases on uniform men. However, the study will unravel the attendant effects of alcohol taking as well as however it can make one contract sexually transmitted diseases which most times may be as a result of the intoxication from alcohol taking which make them get aroused and sometimes triggers them from being involved in unprotected sexual intercourse which its consequences are sexually transmitted infections and later if not well taken care of, may degenerate into sexually transmitted diseases.
However, this study also has some delimitation which makes the research work to be strenuous and requires being careful and objective because of the object of study which is central to human behaviour. The limitations however includes: population, time and financial constraints.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
For this study the following terms will be operationalized:
UNIFORM MEN: Holders of a public, civil, or position of authority, especially one with a commission, in the armed services, the mercantile marine, or on a passenger ship usually identifiable through their clothes.
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES: are illnesses that have a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of sexual behavior, including vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex. This is also known as Sexually transmitted diseases (STD), also referred to as sexually transmitted infections (STI) and venereal diseases (VD).
ALCOHOL: This is a colorless volatile flammable liquid which is the intoxicating constituent of wine, beer, spirits, and other drinks, and is also used as an industrial solvent and as fuel.
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), or sexually transmitted infections (STDs), are generally acquired by sexual contact. The organisms that cause sexually transmitted diseases may pass from person to person in blood, semen, or vaginal and other bodily fluids.
AROUSE: to urge or stimulate to action or to physiological readiness for activity
INTOXICATION: overpowering exhilaration or excitement of the mind or emotions.
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