THE EFFECT OF INSURGENCY ON BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
The study investigated effects of insurgency on universal basic education in Borno state and other states in Nigeria. Basic education is the first level of education for children at primary 1 level to basic 9 which is the Junior Secondary School level in Nigeria. However, achieving education for all Nigeria children, Borno state need a secured teaching and learning environment. The study examined the effects of insurgence activities such as abduction of pupils and attacks on teachers in basic schools of Borno State. The sample for the study was 270 teachers of basic schools selected on the basis of 10 teachers from each of the 27 local government areas that constituted Borno State. The instrument for data collection was a 20 items questionnaire title: Effect of insurgency on Basic Education Questionnaire. Two research questions were formulated, data collection were converted to mean, standard deviation was used to answer the research questions. It was therefore recommended that the Nigeria government should provide free and compulsory education to all Borno State internally displaced children through provision of scholarship from basic school level to university, the government should show higher commitment to ensuring security in the states and schools.
1.1 Background to the Study
The nation Nigeria has witnessed brutal confrontation and massive assault from terrorist group which is undoubtedly the most blood-thirsty and destructive, both in terms of brutality mindless of the savagery and flagrant disobedience to the principles of peace and stability. Nigeria has witnessed insurgency from this terrorist group called Boko-Haram from 2009. They haveunleashed terror and fear in the minds of every Nigerian. There is massive destruction of government’s properties, burning of schools, bombing/burning of churches, mosques and other public places. Historically, Borno State, which was founded in 1971 initially comprised the present Borno State and Yobe State. Prior to the advent of insurgency, has been relatively peaceful, multicultural and dynamic state in Nigeria. The state is fortunate to have human and natural resources which has created many opportunities for its indigenes and other Nigerians to live in harmony. Borno State started experiencing the global trend of insurgency from 2009 (Adamu, 2014). Which led to the gruesome killings of innocent Nigerian citizens perpetrated by an insurgent group called Boko Haram (Adamu, 2014). Since 2009, they have disrupted educational system in Borno State with huge negative effects on basic education. The insurgent group dislikes children attending schools and also commit criminal offences ranging from kidnapping of school pupils and attacking teachers in schools (Adeyemi, 2014). There is major destruction of schools activities in the state. In the recent past, they used under aged girls to carry out suicide bombing of major shopping malls, cinema halls and bus terminals. Moreso, abduction of school children and the elderly were also common in their recent styles of mindless attacks.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Empathically, many basic schools in Borno State and other northern states had experienced several attacks from the insurgent group. Some basic schools especially in Baga towns in northern part of Borno State have been closed down for two (2) years (BSMOE, 2015). The problem could be traced down to when the Boko Haram group used religion to set up rules in the community unnoticed, advanced it with violence to the state level and metamorphous into an insurgent group and disturbed the peace of the state. Moreso, basic education in Borno state have been experiencing serious problem prior to the insurgence, there were shortage of classes for teaching and learning, shortage of instructional materials and teachers (NUT, 2007). This has indicated that basic school is underfunded by the state government, lack of payment of teachers’ salary which led to frequent strike by basic school teaches are also a concern to many families (NUT, 2008). Moreover, while the state is struggling to overcome the existing problems, insurgent came in as a bigger challenge to the state, which now posed as a threat to many parents and children of school age in Borno State.(nta 2015).
1.3 Objective of the Study
The purpose of this study is to find out if the activities of the Boko Haram have a direct effect on basic education in Nigeria, especially Borno. And also to draw the attention of the authority to the damaging effects of Boko Haram attacks on education in the northern Nigeria. It calls on Boko Haram and other unknown gunmen to immediately cease all attacks on schools and educational facilities as it is affecting the achievement of Education For All (EFA) by 2015.
1.4 Research Questions
1. What is the effect of insurgency on school attendance among pupils/students in the area affected?
2. Has insurgency affected basic education in Borno State?
3. What is the effect of insurgency on the performance of teachers in Borno State?
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis
The study is guided by this research hypothesis;
Ho: There is no significant difference in school attendance among male and female, pupils/students in areas are prone to Boko Haram attacks in Northern Nigeria.
Hi: There is significant difference in school attendance among male and female, pupils/students in areas prone to Boko Haram attacks in Northern Nigeria.
Ho: There is no significant difference in school attendance among urban and rural schools in state that are prone to Boko Haram attacks in Northern Nigeria.
Hi: There is significant difference in school attendance among urban and rural schools in state that are prone to Boko Haram attachs in Northern Nigeria.
Ho: There is no significant in school attendance among primary/secondary schools in areas that are prone to Boko Haram attacks in Northern Nigeria.
Hi: There is significant in school attendance among primary/secondary schools in area that are prone to Boko Haram attacks in Northern Nigeria.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study investigated effects of insurgency on universal basic education in Borno State and other Northern states in Nigeria. The study also examines the effect of insurgent activities such as abduction of pupils and attacks on teachers in basic schools of Borno State.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The relevance of the study is to provide an applicable solution to the effect of this insurgency on basic education in Borno State and other Northern States in Nigeria. The researcher is prepared to conduct this study and have a researchable solution to the effect of insurgency on basic education in Nigeria. The outcome of this study will be of considerable benefits to education, also serve as an insight for other countries to study the situation in Nigeria and avert any pre-insurgency activities in their nations.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
This study is primarily limited by time and distance between the researcher and respondents. The researcher had the obligated responsibility of attending lectures and writing this project. Time was rather limited. Insufficient funding also posed difficulties in the course of this study as a self-sponsored student without financial assistance from friends and relatives. The study was also limited by lack of current literature in the polytechnic library. The researcher has to source vastly for information with which this study was carried out. Irrespective of these limitations, the researcher did his best to overcome these limiting factors, therefore, the reliability and authority of this research should not be underserved by its potential users.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
In order to ensure clarity of terms and the understanding of the meaning of some important terms used in the study, the following operational definitions are given;
Education: Education can be defined as a tool for building a united, independent, wealthy egalitarian society which is capable of maintaining the traditions and value (Adesina, Fegbongbe & Talabi, 1983).
Basic Education: Basic education can be as the beginning of acquisition of desirable skill, knowledge and attitude in a formal school system.
Universal: Universal can be defined as the programme that is meant for all arms of the society such as the poor and the rich, the physically challenged and all the school dropouts people in Borno State.
Insurgency: An insurgency is a rebellion against a constituted authority.
Insurgent: A person who rises in forcible opposition to lawful authority, especially a person who engages in armed resistance to a government or to the execution of its law.
Boko Haram: The term “Boko Haram” come from the Hausa word book meaning “western education” and the Arabic word Haram figuratively meaning sin (literally “forbidden”). The name loosely translated from Hausa means Western Education is Forbidden.
School: A school can be defined as an institution for the instructions of children or people under college age.
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