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PERCEIVED EFFECTS OF SEXUALITY EDUCATION, SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL FACTORS ON SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH OF ADOLESCENTS

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ABSTRACT

The study examined the perceived effects of sexuality education, socio-economic and cultural factors on sexual behaviour and reproductive health of adolescents in Kosofe and Shomolu Local Government Areas of Lagos State. The survey research design was adopted for the study. 150 participants selected through random sampling technique constituted sample for the study. The variables studies include knowledge, socio economic status, risky sexual behaviour, peer pressure and adolescents’ reproductive health problems. The research instrument was a self-developed, structured and validated questionnaire. Data analysis was done with the descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentage while the chi-square (X2) was used for hypotheses testing at 0.05 alpha level of significance. The results revealed that the variables socio-economic, sexuality education, influenced adolescent sexual behaviour and reproductive health problems. For example knowledge 90 (60%), socio-economic 85 (56%), sexuality education 75 (50%), sexual risky behaviour 91 (61%) and adolescents’ reproductive health problem 87 (58%). The Chi-square values are as follows: (H01 =X2 cal = 132.52, X2 tab = 26.30, df = 16, P>0.05; H02 = X2cal = 22.43, df = 36, X2 tab = 20.97, P>0.05; H03 = X2 cal = 22.80, X2 tab = 16.58, df = 16, P>0.05; and H04 = X2 cal = 47.81, X2 tab = 36.71, df = 25, P>0.05). The following conclusions were made that:

1.  A significant influence of family socio-economic status.

2.  Sexuality education on adolescents’ reproductive health problems exist, Mass media effects will significantly influence sexual behaviour in adolescents.

3.  Family socio-economic and cultural factors will significantly influence sexual behaviour in adolescents.

4.  Peer pressure will  significantly influence sexual behaviour in adolescents. The null hypotheses were rejected.

The following recommendations were made that:

1.  The school should ensure that it plays its role in neutralizing the negative effect of peer pressure among students.

2.  Parents should monitor the peers and company of their children/wards.

3.  Students should not keep company with peers with negative influence especially with regard to reproductive health problem.

4.  The Federal Ministry of Education should ensure that it makes good policies that will affect the youths positively, with regards to reproductive health issues.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

WHO (1980) defined reproductive health as a state of physical, mental, and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system at all stages of life. Reproductive health implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe life and the capability to reproduce, with the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so. Implicit in this area are the right of men and women to be informed and to have access to safe, effective, affordable, and acceptable methods of family planning of their choice and the right to appropriate health-care services that enable women to safely go through pregnancy and childbirth (Bruess, 2000). Reproductive health is not just the absence of the disease of the reproductive system, it covers a whole range of conditions and processes that include: healthy sexual development, reproductive and fertility regulation. Graham et al (2004) documented that among women of reproductive age (15 – 44 years) in developing countries, the burden of reproductive ill health problem is far greater than the burden from tuberculosis, respiratory infections, motor vehicle injuries, homicide and violence or from war. They observed that reproductive ill health accounts for 36% disease including women compare with 12% for men. Reproductive health is a crucial part of general health. Some have little or no control over their sexual lives and childbearing, others engage in behaviour that puts both them and their partners at risk while others do not have access to the right kind of information and services required for good health. 

Bell (1990) asserted that many girls and women are socially, politically, and economically disadvantaged. They have fever educational opportunities and consequently have limited choices about their lives, their health and their fertility. Graham et al (2004), observed that knowledge of the extent of reproductive ill-health worldwide is far from complete, but estimates indicate that there are high rates of preventable conditions and avoidable suffering that often have devastating effects on individuals and families. They confirmed that from childhood and include problems such as the sexual abuse of children and harmful practices such as female genital mutilation. Other aspect of reproductive ill-health arise during adolescence with adopted behaviours that may have major consequences later on. These include: unprotected sexual relations in adolescence increase the risks of mortality and morbidity associated with pregnancy, childbirth, induced abortion and sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AID infection. They however ascertained that young people often do not have access to appropriate reproductive health services.

Statement of the Problem

There is an observed increase in the involvement of adolescents in risky sexual behaviours with increased teenage pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases (STD), post abortion complications and premature deaths. There are also cases of adolescent mothers with pregnancy complications such as Vesico Vaginal Fistula (VVF). This study examined the factors which influence reproductive health problems and the prevalence rate amongst adolescent  health problems. 

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study include to:

1.  Find out if there will be difference between the sex lives of students who are exposed to sex education and those who are not.

2.  Find out if there will be significant effect of sex education on sexual deviation of students?

Significance of the Study

The findings and recommendations of this study will be of the following benefits:

1.  Raise youth awareness on the need for sexual literacy. Educate adolescents and youth on negative effects of risky sexual behaviour.

2.  Increase awareness on associated personal increase parental awareness on the need for sexual literacy in the community.

3.  It will also increase awareness in teachers on the need to implement sexuality education secondary school.

4.  Educate the Ministry of Education and teachers on their expected roles to promote reproductive health care and family life education in Nigeria.

Research Questions

1.  Will there be difference between the sex lives of students who are exposed to sex education and those who are not?

2.  Will there be significant effect of sex education on sexual deviation of students?

Hypotheses

1.  There will be no significant difference between the sex lives of students who are exposed to sex education and those who are not.

2.  There will be no significant effect of sex education on sexual deviation of students.

Limitation of the Study

The limitation observed during the study consists of the reluctance of the students to participate in the study. The researcher encouraged them by assuring privacy and confidentiality. The participants eventually cooperated and the study was completed.

Delimitation of the Study

This study was delimited to the following; female students from three selected senior secondary schools in Mainland Local Government Areas of Lagos State. It was also limited to adolescents between ages 15 and 19 years.

Definition of Terms

Incidence: Incidence is defined as the relative frequency of occurrence of something.

Human Sexuality: Human sexuality refers to the expression of sexual sensation and related intimacy between human beings, as well as the expression of identity through sex and influenced by or based on sex.

Reproductive Health: Reproductive health is defined by World Health Organisation (WHO, 1980) as a state of physical, mental and social, well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system at all stages of life.

Sex Education: Sex education is the introduction of sexual topics within an educational context.

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