This study examined the influence of home factors on academic staff job performance at the University of Lagos. In carrying out the study, five research questions and null hypotheses each were postulated to guide the study. The descriptive research design was used for the study. A modified version of instrument used by other researchers was used to assess the respondents’ opinions. Data collected from 100 respondents were analyzed using mean and Chi-square statistical tool, while the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the analysis show that there is a significant relationship between marital stability, family income, health status and home size on the job performance of University of Lagos academic staff. It is concluded that marital stability affects the job performance of University of Lagos academic staff; family income and financial status affect the job performance of University of Lagos academic staff; health status of family members and also that of academic staff can affect their job performanceand the larger the home size is the higher the pressure on the income of University of Lagos academic staff which will also tell on their performance. It is recommended that academic staff should be given room for counseling that will cater for emotional wellbeing of university academic staff and adequate financial reward should be provided for University of Lagos academic staff so that they can perform their job adequately. It is suggested that a study be carried out on the influence of motivational strategies on job performance and commitment of academic staff of University of Lagos.
Background to the Study
Universities all over the world have the prime objectives of imparting knowledge and producing sound intellectuals through teaching, research and community services. To effectively deliver these objectives, qualified and competent academics are harnessed. However, academic staff can only reach the peak performance if they are adequately motivated assuming that the issue of competence is taken as given. Therefore, effective job performance by the academic staff can only lead to the realization of the broad objectives for which universities are established. Fabunmi (2005) maintained that the success of university system depends (not totally) on various environmental factors such as the available infrastructure, location of the school, the classroom condition, the architectural design of the school, the availability of standard library for studies and research and so on. He also mentioned that the condition of the home of any university employee plays a crucial role in getting an optimal performance from the employee.
The home of an employee can be seen in the light of physical and psychological condition of the house or where the employee lives. This has to do with the relationship and the effect of family, friends and the community on an employee. Albert (2008) defined home as a complex term that can encompass every activities that one does outside workplace. He believed that home is part of one’s journey to workplace, the environment that the employee lives, the people he lives with, the experience with neighbours, welfare of in-laws, friends and even where he worships, as some religious believes have a significant influence on workplace practices.
However, Voydancoff (2008) posited that meeting the often incompatible demand of family and work may create family-work conflict. For example, working long hours may prevent adequate performance of family responsibilities. Employee’s position in the family, marital status, marital expectations for example, when an employee has a problem with child bearing all these can have a psychological effect on the employee and are factors that often bring frictions between home and job. Jokotoye (2001) opined that some parents often frown at their daughters’ ambition of having their doctoral degree which would enhance their performance at work as such parents believe that men will be intimidated by their daughters’ achievement and would not be able to get husband. Ill-health of family member may also interfere with work as illness of one’s child may prevent attendance at work or make one to lose concentration at work.
Job performance is the ability of an employee to render effectively such services that he is paid to do. Lombardi (2012) is of the view that the price of success is hard work, dedication and commitment to job at hand and determination that whether win or lose; we have applied the best of ourselves to the task at hand. Organization performance is the desire and ability on the part of employee to remain committed to the task agreed upon and given while diligently carrying out those tasks with no extra cost on the employer. While job commitment is a bond that links employee to the job, job performance can be seen as ability to deliver the service effectively and efficiently. Meyer and Allen (1997) classify employee performance into two groups, one group as Job Effective Performance while another group of employees may display Normative Way of Performance.
Adams (2004) argued that employees who are not performing in their jobs sometimes feel that they are treating their employers unfairly while some would eventually engage in withdrawal behaviour, which is a set of action employees perform to avoid the work situation-behaviour that may later culminate in quitting the job or being sacked. Job performance is individual psychological and physical contribution to the job. It is therefore necessary to improve what workers contribute in workplace so that maximum utilization of resources could be achieved.
Rogers (2000) advocated that one should never continue in a job which one feels that one is not performing, if one is not happy with one’s performance and in what one is doing, one will not have an inner peace. To Meyer (2012), performance is never an accident. It is always the result of the commitment to excellence, intelligent planning and focused effort. Lombardi (1997), in his own view, felt that the quality of person’s life is in direct proportion to their excellent performance, regardless of their chosen field of endeavors. However, due to the policy of location of university sites in Nigeria, accommodation problems have often been reported by various researchers (Adigun, 2011; Fashina, 2009; and Odedina, 2007) as one of the problems facing the Nigerian lecturers. Some of those who were interviewed by Fashina, lamented that their family members live miles away from them and for that they travel from time to time so as to ensure that various family responsibilities are met. Therefore, link has been established by Desmond (2009) and Orji (2007) between home environment and job performance. It is argued that the kind of home environment an employee comes from will determine his attitude and effort towards the job which will consequently impact their job performance. The extent to which this could be applied to job performance in a formal school setting is the basis for this study In view of the aforementioned, the study sought out the influence of marital stability, family size, family income and health status of the family members on staff job performance in University of Lagos.
Statement of the Problem
The number of university academic staff in Nigeria has witnessed a magnanimous growth in the last twenty years. Nigerian university system unlike in the past, now produces a great number of seasoned academic staff many of whom now ply their trade abroad as a result of global recognition. Some academic staff of Nigerian universities have also won laurels for themselves and made the country proud. However, the perception the parents, students and government on the contributions of the lecturers have not been positive. Parents and students often argue that university academic staff are unpatriotic and self-centered as they believe that instead of the university lecturers to concentrate on their primary assignment, they shuttle from one private university to another for part time jobs leaving their main job to suffer.
However, home factors, which include but not limited to stress, family income, marital stability, health status have often been blamed for their attitude towards their job performance. It is against this background that the researcher feels that it is necessary to investigate if family income, marital stability, family health status and size of the family can affect the job performance of the academic staff of University of Lagos.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of home factors on academic staff job performance at the University of Lagos. To achieve this, the study specifically aims at:
1. Finding out the influence of marital stability on academic staff job performance
2. Investigating the influence of family income on academic staff job performance
3. Investigating if there is any influence of health status of family members’ on academic staff job performance
4. Investigating if there is any influence of home size on academic staff job performance.
The study provides answers to the following questions
1. To what extent does marital stability influence academic staff job performance?
2. Is there any influence of family income on academic staff job performance?
3. How would health status influence academic staff job performance?
4. Is there any influence of home size on academic staff job performance?
The following hypotheses are formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance to guide the study:
Ho1: There is no significant influence of marital stability on the job performance of University of Lagos academic staff
Ho2: No significant influence of family income exists on the job performance of University of Lagos academic staff
Ho3: There is no significant influence of health status on the job performance of University of Lagos academic staff
Ho4: There is no significant influence of home size on the job performance University of Lagos academic staff
Significance of Study
The finding of this study is expected to serve as positive contribution to employers of academic staff of various universities in discovering the role of home on academic staff job performance and are expected to use this study as a basis for staffing process in the federal, state and private owned universities and it will also help them in making staffing policies that will help them adequately provide for the welfare of prospective lecturers so as to perform their job effectively.
This study will serve as a guide to others researchers who may be interested in finding answers to some issues on academic staff job performance. It will also help the policy makers in making adequate provisions for the academic staff so as to improve their performance. The study will also enlighten the academic staff of universities on how to make adequate provision for their family members so as not to make themselves affected by pressure from home as it can affect their job performance.
Scope and Delimitations of the Study
This study is strictly concerned with the influence of home factors on academic staff job performance at the university Lagos. The study covers family income, health status, home size and how marital stability or the absence of it affects academic staff performance. The research is restricted to selected number of academic staff of University of Lagos.
Definition of Terms
The following terms have been defined operationally as follows:
Marital stability: This has to do with the conjugal status of a staff as intact or non-intact i.e. separated, divorce, happily married.
Family income: This can be seen in terms of the average earning of the family. This also means per capital income of the family. That is, an academic staff whose wife and children are not working will definitely have low par capital income.
Health status: Overall wellbeing of the organism. This is also a condition of physical, mental and social well-being or the absence of diseases or any other abnormal condition.
Job Performance: This is the ability to do the job that one is expected to do well
Home: This has to do with the finance, marital stability, family and friends that have impact on employee outside the work environment.
Marital stability: This has to do with if the marital experiences of an employee. Employee who has marital instability or failure are believed to sometimes duel on the marriage failure.
Family income: Family income is the amount of money that comes into a family account. Too much dependants on a fixed income sometimes reduces the savings at the disposal of the family
Health status: This has to do with the medical wellbeing of the whole family. The amount of money and time spent in hospital or clinic will affect one’s disposable income.
Home size: This is the number of people living with an employee. They can be dependents or independent. More dependent number of people in a family will lower t5he per capital income of the family.
Effective Performance: This is ability to accomplish a set task
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