CORRUPTION AND UNDERDEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIAN PUBLIC SERVICE
This work is prompted by the desire to fathom corruption and underdevelopment in Nigerian public service. (a study of Anambra state).as a modest contribution of the federal government declared to eradicate corruption in our society. furthermore, in data collected primary together with secondary sources used by the researcher were got through questionnaire and interviews with the Anambra state Public servants, while secondary data were collected from books, journals, newspaper and other written materials from the analysis and discussions, the following findings were made, corruption is the major issue and it has its causes, consequences and solutions one of the major, corruption causes under development, corruption equally causes employment, the following steps should be taken to alleviate the problem associated to corruption. 1. There should be management practice, which will help to eradicate bribery and corruption. High standard of moral behaviours should be prescribed in the Nigeria constitution for public officers should be vigorously enforced (2) The management should create more incentives for motivating both employees and employers. (3,)Promotion and compensation of employee should be based on merit through organized job evaluation procedure, which can be understand by the employees if all these could be taken into account, it will help in the growth and development of the economy.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Nigeria is rich in natural and human resources, with a population of over 150 million people; the most populous country in Africa. At the time of her political independence, on 1st October 1960, Nigeria excelled in production of agricultural produce such as groundnut, palm oil, cocoa, cotton, beans, timber and hides and skins. Then, during the oil boom period of the seventies Nigeria made headlines with her oil wealth, as a country richly endowed with oil and natural gas resources capable of financing a number of important projects to meet basic consumption and development needs (Salisu, 200:2). With per capital income of around $1,100 during the late 1970’s Nigeria was regarded as the fastest growing country in Sub- Sahara Africa (Salisu, Ibid). Yet it remains predominantly underdeveloped due to the scourge of corruption that has corroded it.
Corruption denies the ordinary citizen the basic means of livelihood, it worsen unemployment and erodes our image as a nation and as individual (Danjuma Goje 2010). It has undermined Nigeria’s economic growth and development potential, with a per capital income of $340, Nigeria now ranks amongst the least developed countries in the World Bank League table (Salusi, op.cit). Nigeria’s higher education system once regarded as the best in Sub-Sahara Africa is in deep crisis.
Health services are woefully inadequate, graduate unemployment is rising and so too is crime rate (Salisu, Ibid).This culture of corruption which is rampant at national level constitutes a threatening force to development at grassroots level. It has been a significant factor leading to the general failure of local government as well as an excuse for suspending representative institution (Humes and Ola, N.D: 104). Corrupt practices have been deleterious not only because they divert funds from public purposes to private purses but also they undermine the vitality of local government.
Brief historical background of Anambra state
Anambra is the eight most populated states in the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the second most densely populated state in Nigeria after Lagos State. Anambra possesses a history that stretches back to the 9th century AD, as revealed archaeological excavations at Igbo-Ukwu and Ezra; Great works of art in iron, bronze, copper, and pottery works belonging to the ancient Kingdom of Nri, Led a sophisticated divine Kingship administrative system which held sway area of Anambra from c. 948 AD to 1911. The Historical background of Anambra state prompts the researcher to choose it as a study area.
The significant level of Corruption in Most of the Local government in the state viz Idemili North, Nnewi North and South, Ihiala, Anambra East Aguata lead the former governor Chris Ngige to suspend six heads of service in the state local government system for alleged misappropriation of council funds. About eight local government treasurers and the Auditor-General Local Government were suspended for alleged misappropriation of councils’ funds. These suspensions came amidst complaint of non-payment of July salary and arrears from the previous government by the workers.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Obadan and Edo (2004) noted that manufacturing sub-sector has been characterized by low capacity utilization, low and declining contribution to national output, declining and negative real growth rate, dominance of light consumer goods manufacturing, low value – added to production due to high import dependence for inputs, prevalence of unviable state – owned enterprises, accumulation of large inventories of unsold finished products goods and dominances of sub- standard goods that cannot compete internationally (Iyoha and Oligbi op cit). In order to reverse these ugly trends, various economic reforms programmes were packaged by various regimes in Nigeria. For instance, in 1986, the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) was introduced by the Babangida administration to address the fundamental and structure in balances in the economy, strengthen the currency and build a viable, sustainable industrial infrastructure upon which real economic growth and development can be founded. In 1998, the vision 2010 reform package was introduced by Abacha Administration. The aim was to “develop a blue print that will transform the country and place it firmly on the route to becoming a developed nation by year 2010 “(vision 2010 Report 1998). Again in 2004, the Obasanjo Administration came up with NEEDS reform package. The programme NEEDS – National Empowerment and Development Strategy – rested on four key strategies (NEEDS, 2004): - Reforming Government and Institutions - Growing private sector; - Implementing a social charter; - Value Re-orientation In 2007, the Yar’ Adua administration came up with 7-point Agenda for national development. In 2011, the Goodluck administration came up with a Transformation Agenda. Again in 2015, the Buhari-Led administration came into power with the change agenda, with policy thrust of curbing Public sector corruption as a panacea for better economic transformation. The policy thrust of all these reforms is that Nigeria would be ranked one of the 20 most developed countries of the world by the year 2020. In spite of all these reforms and transformation, Nigeria still remain predominantly under-developed due the scourge of economic and financial buccaneering and lack of political commitment on the part of leadership to fight corruption (Adenuga 2001; Sorunke 2013). It is against this back drop that this study seeks to analyze the impact of corruption on the development of the public sector in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study include:
i. To investigate the causes of corruption in Nigeria.
ii. To examine why corruption seems to be institutionalize in Nigeria.
iii. To determine the impact of corruption on the Nigerian public service.
iv. To determine the relationship between corruption and under development
v. To determine the relationship between corruption and the performance of workers in the public service.
vi. To proffer solutions on how to curb corruption in Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Ho: There is no relationship between corruption and under development.
Hi: There is a relationship between corruption and under development.
Ho: There is no relationship between corruption and the performance of workers in the public service.
Hi: There is a relationship between corruption and the performance of workers in the public service.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study lies in the fact that it will serve as a guide to both policy planners, implementators on the, mechanisms of I checkmating excessive abuse of power by public office holders, in Anambra state and in Nigeria at large. Equally, this will help in bringing good policies that will yield to the completion of projects embarked upon by the Ministry. It shall further stress the model for integration of Anambra state into development paradigm of the country. The work shall be an academic contribution on rural integration and development administration. It will become a stimuli and basis for future research in the field. This work will also serve as a foremost recorded document in its entirety, particularly in Anambra state. Scholars, policy planners and implementators including the general public whose aim geared toward improving their research desire as well as transforming the society will find the work relevant.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is primary concerned with corruption and underdevelopment in Nigeria public service. This study/project work covers Anambra state public service. The researcher encountered some constraints, which limited the scope of the study. These constraints include but are not limited to the following;
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
CORRUPTION: Wrong doing on the part of an authority or powerful party, through means that are illegitimate, immoral, or incompatible with ethical standards. Corruption often results from patronage and is associated with bribery.
UNDERDEVELOPMENT: The term underdevelopment refers to that state of an economy where levels of living of masses are extremely low due to very low levels of per capita income resulting from low levels of productivity and high growth rates of population.
PUBLIC SERVICE: A service that is provided by and or supported by a government or its agencies. An agency that provides a public service for the government or on behalf of the government. It is a service which is provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing provision of services.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows; Chapter one is concerned with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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