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SAMPLE SURVEY ON THE USE OF CONTRACEPTIVE DRUGS AMONG FEMALE STUDENT OF FACULTY OF SCIENCE (A CASE STUDY OF OSUN STATE POLYTECHNIC, IREE)

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
All over the world statement, thinkers and demographers have been concerned with the rapid growth of population rate in the last four decades. A current rate of growth. The world population as at 21 May, 2010; the human population of the world is estimated by the United State Census Bureau to be 6822, 200,000. Annual birth have leveled at about 134 million per year since their peak at 163 million in the late 1990’s and an expected to remain constant. However, deaths are only around 57 million per year and are expected to increase to 90 million by 2050, because births out number deaths, the world’s population are expected to reach 90 million between 2040 and 2050. The rapid increase in human population over the course of the 20th Century has raised concerns about whether earth is experiencing over population and scientific consensus that is the current population expansion and accompanying increases in usage of resources are linked to threats to the ecosystem. Since as rising level of atmosphere Carbon oxide, global warming and pollution.   
Due to this pace of growth, strategies were undertaken to curb the problem. This led to the emergency of “Contraceptive” drug. Other terms commonly used includes birth control, fertility regulation, Planned Parenthood and responsive parenthood, Huge amount have been spent on family planning and family planning programs just in a bid to popularize its importance and adoption in tertiary institution. Therefore, it is expected that there is a widespread knowledge of contraceptive drug among adolescent especially female student. Although, the adoption of there information varies, some have interesting and positive attitude due to passive orientation while others see the usefulness and go a head to practice it. Sexual activity is particularly high among unmarried youth and those who happen to use contraceptive and those who did not use with social concern in mind but more for personal reasons such as to avoid illegitimate births.
Contraceptive drugs should not only be seen in the view of population reduction alone but also in line with the misfortune that is associated with indiscriminate sexual intercourse. A growing population of adolescent not only initiates sexual intercourse at early stages, but also engages in having multiple sexual partners. Hence a high incidence of illegally induced abortion. In most cases, restrictions on abortion force women to rely on illegal abortion and as most young people are poor, they often use unqualified abortimist, which leads to frequent severer health consequence such as sterility and death. It is therefore time for the society to recognize that the health and even the lives of its young ladies must not be scarified in an attempt in an attempt to prevent their sexual activity. In most developing countries young ladies get married later and more start sex before marriage. This exposing them to the risk of unwanted pregnancy and unwanted sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s) including HIV/AIDS. In these countries 20% to 60% of young women pregnancies and births are unwanted most coming sooner than planned. These pregnancies put young women health at risk through child bearing or unsafe abortion. Increasingly, early parenthood means lost education as will as with life long loss of earnings.
Evidence in Nigeria shows that induced abortion increasing and is considered to be a major cause of material mortality which quite high in Nigeria. The question to ask ourselves now is, has the introduction of contraceptive use in any way helped to stem the rate of unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s) among women especially female student in the tertiary institution? The answer to this question above is not affirmative.
1.1   BRIEF STUDY OF SURVEY AREA
The Osun State Polytechnic, Iree was established on 12th October, 1992. it was one of the satellite campuses of the Polytechnic Ibadan before it become an autonomous institution. Faculty of science was one of the structures inherited from the Polytechnic Ibadan before being developed to meet its present status. At the inception, the faculty consists of the following these departments namely; Science Laboratory Technology Computer Science  Mathematics and Statistics  Later Food Science and technology and Applied Science were established but very recently, the computer science department was reshuffled to another newly created faculty, the faculty of information and communication technology. It is however pertinent to state that faculty of science is one of the oldest faculties in the institution and its importance to the polytechnic system is undoubtedly enormous. It is robust intellectually socially and politically. Faculty of science is the oldest faculty of the six existing faculties in the institution; the faculty is playing an important role in the institution and the nation as a whole because of its contribution to academic and technological advancements. The faculty consists of five departments, namely Department of Applied science, Food science and technology, Mathematics and statistical, Micro biology and Department of science laboratory technology.
1.2   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.     To determine if there exists a linear correlation among the different department of faculty of science and the use of contraceptive.
2.     To know the best method to be used between the measure of central tendency and the stratified techniques.
3.     To test for the significant different that exists between student and the attitude towards the contraceptives use.  
1.3   PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED DURING DATA COLLECTION
At the inception of this work, I envisaged little problem to arise knowing that the people deal with are highly educated ones. The major problem that was encountered was resistance from few ones to fill the questionnaire but due to a little encouragement and enlightenment, some saw the topic as very interesting, while some still showed embarrassment. A few numbers of respondents gave religions reason for the non-response to some questions. Some female respondents, especially some ignore at some of the questions because of their personal nature.  Another major problem that was encountered includes those of non-response and missing questionnaire. Having follow them up for about 4 days in their department to retrieve the questionnaire but due to carelessness on their part explained how it got miss during rush hours of classed and lecture period. Although I anticipated a 5% loss. However, many of these constraints were overcome by patience and humility on the part of the researcher to ensure that we can be sure of a reliable and scientific enterprise.
1.4   PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of embanking on this project is for the benefit of the student, society, government etc. This motivated me to do work on sample survey to show that survey work is good in enumerating the number of student that is using contraceptive drugs among female student especially excerpt people that is use it in the faculty of science.
1.5   DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES
In eliciting for information, the method used was the questionnaire. A core comparable questions already developed and tested in the form of a questionnaire was employed. One hundred copies of the questionnaire were printed and administered in different department of faculty of science in the polytechnic. These included, departments of mathematics & statistics, food science technology, micro biology, applied chemistry and science laboratory technology. The distribution of the questionnaire was mostly done by the researcher himself, although with the help of two of his friends. The questionnaire contained 31 questions which was divided into 2 main section, personal data and knowledge or altitude of student towards contraceptive. About 13 of the questions were closed ended and 15 open ended. This was inevitable due to the nature of the research in studying their attitude toward contractive drugs. To ensure that respondents fill free to answer the question the name of the respondents was not required.
1.6   JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY
Contraceptive as a method or means of reducing family size is an issue that almost everybody knows about. To ensure that every grown up man and woman use it will be nothing but hyperbolizing the concept. The knowledge of contraceptive does not however lead invariably to adoption of contraception. It is therefore essential to develop effective programs that provide accurate reproductive health information and useful services to young people who have been largely left out of the family planning revolution. Young ladies therefore should both be guided and encouraged to postpone sex or provide them necessary effective method of contraceptive. Although many people think that providing family planning services to youth will promote promiscuity. There is no evidence for that yet. The high incidence of premarital sexuality is attributable to increasing moral attitudes and the slacking blocking of traditional requirement for premarital casualty. An ever increasing number of adolescent migrate from rural homes to urban centres in search of job opportunities for higher learning or apprenticeship, this breaking away from constraints traditionally applied by family members and village communicates, evidence from the 2009 (Nigeria Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) has not only confirmed the high incidence of premarital sexuality in urban centres but also has revealed that the incidence of premarital sexual behaviour is not limited to urban centres. These youth typically engage in sexual relations with out contemplating the dangerous consequences which include unwanted pregnancies, abortions, AID (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and other sexuality transmitted diseases. In response of these issues the International community at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in 2009, for the trust time recognized formally that adolescent reproductive and sexual health involves a specific set of needs distinct from adult needs. The ICPD also stressed that previously health service has largely ignored young people need consequently the programme of action emphasized that young people of both sexes are typically poorly informed about how to protect themselves from unwanted pregnancies and sexuality transmitted diseases as mentioned earlier. Therefore, this suggests the need to provide young people with comprehensive information and access to services in the country. It is however on this bases that this research was designed to indeptly study the positive and negative attitude of students have towards the use of contraceptives drugs.
1.7   DEFINITION OF TERMS USED IN THE PROJECT
Stratified Sampling: - It cab be explain as random sample, is one obtained by separately the population elements or units into non-overlapping group culled strata and then selecting a simple random sample from each stratum. 
Multiple Correlations: - This is the degree of relationship that exists between three or more variable X1 X2 X3 represent the variables under consideration. Then we can let X11 X12 X13 ……. Represent or denote the values assumed by the variable X1 and X21, X22, X23 denote the value assumed by the variables X2 and so on. With this notation a sum as X21 + X22 + X23 +, +, + , + X2N could be written ∑X2.  
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA): - Another important distribution is the F-distribution, named in honour of R.A Fisher, who first developed and describe it. The random variable F is also a test statistic and is define as the ratio if unbiased estimates of two population variances i.e. F = S  / S  . The F-distribution is used for inferences of this kind. The procedure of testing for the equality of three or more means is provided by statistical techniques which represent an important application of F-distribution or Analysis of variance.
Measure of Central Tendency: - A set of data has a number of important features. If the data set consists of number we are not often interested in two characteristics of the data. The first is a number that is considered most representative of the set e.g. mean, median and mode.
Measure of Dispersion: - These measures serve to locate the “center” of the distribution but they do not reveal how the items are spread out or scattered on each side of the centre. This later characteristic of a distribution is commonly referred to as the dispersion e.g. variance, standard deviation.

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