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THE EFFECTS OF TWO TEACHING METHODS ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN HOME ECONOMICS

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THE EFFECTS OF TWO TEACHING METHODS ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN HOME ECONOMICS

 

ABSTRACT

The study focused on the impact of teaching methods of home economics on academic achievement of junior secondary school students using Enugu Education Zone as case study. The research adopted a descriptive survey design was employed to assess the opinions of the respondents. A total of 150 participant were selected from 5 (five) sampled junior secondary school in Enugu education zone. Well-structured questionnaire was issued to the 150 respondents of which total of 141 responses were retrieved and validated for the study. Data was analyzed in frequencies using simple percentage, mean and standard deviation. Findings from the study revealed that Class Size, Availability of teaching aids, available laboratory equipment, level of qualification and teachers’ subject mastery and Management policies are determinant factor that enhances teacher to choosing a particular method. finding also revealed that when teachers choose tow method such as traditional/modern method that can facilitate student academic achievement in home economics. the study therefore recommends that Government should equip tertiary institutions with physical facilities, modern equipment and laboratories in the different areas of home economics. More so Teachers in the system should be trained, and retrained to be updated with new skills, new methodology and technology in the Home Economics teaching and learning.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1.    Background of the Study:

The primary purpose of teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental change in the learner (Tebabal & Kahssay, 2011). To facilitate the process of knowledge transmission, teachers should apply appropriate teaching methods that best suit specific objectives and level exit outcomes. In the traditional epoch, many teaching practitioners widely applied teacher-centered methods to impart knowledge to learners comparative to student-centered methods. Until today, questions about the effectiveness of teaching methods on student learning have consistently raised considerable interest in the thematic field of educational research (Hightower et al., 2011).

Moreover, research on teaching and learning constantly endeavour to examine the extent to which different teaching methods enhance growth in student learning. Quite remarkably, regular poor academic performance by the majority students is fundamentally linked to application of ineffective teaching methods by teachers to impact knowledge to learners (Adunola, 2011). Substantial research on the effectiveness of teaching methods indicates that the quality of teaching is often reflected by the achievements of learners. According to Ayeni (2011), teaching is a process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners so as to achieve specific outcomes. In order for the method used for teaching to be effective, Adunola (2011) maintains that teachers need to be conversant with numerous teaching strategies that take recognition of the magnitude of complexity of the concepts to be covered.

There has been a consistent poor achievement in Biology as shown by the West African Examination Council (WAEC) annual reports of (1990-1995). Many scholars have therefore tried to find the ways and means of improving students achievements in Biology. They have, therefore, looked at many factors and carried out some emperical studies on the effect of these factors on performance of students. The factor considered in the present study is the effects of two teaching methods on secondary school students performances in Biology. The methods being considered are the discussion and the demonstration methods. These  two methods encourages co-operative learning between the teacher and the learners.  Johnson and Johnson (1997) were of the opinion that co-operative learning experiences promoted higher achievement among the students. Although most studies have stressed on students’ participation and interaction as being very important factors of achievement, there may, however, be other alternative contributing factors and teacher’s method of teaching is definitely one of them.

Jonassen DH(2006) states that pedagogy is a different way by which a teacher can teach. Teaching method therefore, is the act or science of being a teacher, generally referring to strategies of instruction or style of instruction. Science is an activity oriented subject. The way it is thought is important in helping the students acquire basic scientific knowledge, skills and attitude to solving different problem in life. Biology being a science subject, therefore involve the teacher using methods that will give the students opportunity to be actively involved. It is a well-known fact that no skilled teacher ever uses just one method of teaching Shield (2002) pointed out that good teachers  follow no one method, instead he/she uses whatever methods and materials that seems to be best for the particular combination of individual situations. This research work is focused mainly on discussion and demonstration methods of teaching. Discussion method involves the discussion of a biology topic, issue or concept by groups of students or the entire classroom. Trusted (1997) asserts that the discussion method could be teacher centered, task centered or student centered. The teacher opens the discussion by asking one of the prepared questions and the students go on to discuss while he moderates. Walker (2003) says that in discussion method, students are given chance to react while the teacher who has the answer in mind allows the students to think about the question.

According to Wirschner (2006), discussion method is a teaching method that includes questioning which is similar to testing. A teacher may ask a series of question to collect information of what students have learned and what needs to be taught.  Testing is another application of questioning. A teacher tests the student on what was previously taught in order to identify if a student has learned in order to identify if a student has learned in the material. According to Mayer (2004), demonstration are done to provide an opportunity to learn new exploration and visual learning tasks from a different perspective. A teacher may use experimentation to demonstrate ideas in a science class. Demonstration may be used in the circumstance of proving conclusively a fact, as by reasoning or showing evidence.

Over the past years, these have been an unsteady progress rate in biology for secondary school students as regards internal and external examinations. Measuring academic performance can occur at multiple levels and serves multiple purposes. For instance, the classroom teachers after conduct formative and summative tests, to evaluate students mastering of course content and provide grades for students and parents. This relative achievement of secondary school students is an example that has internal and external impact depending on the method adopted by the teacher. It is in the light of the above that the need to examine the effect of two teaching methods on secondary school student performance in biology in Enugu Education Zone can not be over emphasized.

1.2  Statement of the Problem.

Teacher has the greatest potential to influence the student’s education, while a home economics student achievement is related to their teacher’s competence in using different methods of teaching. Thus, home economics students achieve more when teachers employ systematic teaching procedures that make teaching and learning processes easier. In other words, excellent academic performance by home economics students is not only attainable but could also be sustained through teachers’ method of teaching. The popular opinion in Nigeria today is that the standard of Education has fallen short of what it should be. This fall in the standard of education is perceived by many as the inability of the teachers to impact knowledge to the learners, the way they will understand and write well in examinations. Reports by examination councils in Nigeria have disclosed the recurrent and endemic failure of students in both internal and external examinations especially in Biology (WAEC) annual reports; (1990-1995). Agbo (2010) says that teachers no more show commitment as they see themselves as most “measure up”. Also  Layi (2004) found out that teacher’s lateness to work, absenteeism and poor attitude to work encourage indolence and contribute to poor performance among students. The problem of this study is therefore to investigate the effect of two teaching methods- Discussion and demonstration, on secondary school students performance in Biology.

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