Select Currency
Translate this page


Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 79  |  1130 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000





Palm kernel, coconut and melon oils were extracted and refined. Their physical and chemical characteristics were examined. The refined oils were blended to produce three samples of margarine: palm kernel oil margarine (PKO), palm kernel and coconut oils margarine were tested for free fatty acid and Iodine value with the  following results 0.27,0.84, 1.68 Free Fatty Acid, 17.77, 20.30, 21.57 Iodine value for PKO, PCO and PCM margarine respectively. These products were assessed organoleptically using 9 – point hedoic scale o both samples and the standard were found to be significantly different at 5% level of probability. There was however no significant difference in taste and colour at the same level of significance. Production of margarine using these three blends of oils should be encouraged to add to the varieties of margarine in the market.




Margarine, a butter substitute made originally from other animal fats, but nowadays exclusively from vegetable oils, like homogenization and pasteurization is a reach innovation. Margarine is made from water in oilemulsion because margarine is oilemulsion. Today it is a manufactured imitation of butter made by mixing a variety of fats that may include whale oil or vegetable oils, hydrogenated to an appropriates degree. Stabilize, an oil soluble dye and a proportion of soured skimmed milk to supply flavour. Like its model, margarine is about 80% fat, 20% water and solids. It is flavoured, coloured ad fortified with vitamin A and sometimes D to match butters nutritional contribution. Single oil or a blend may be used. During World War 1, coconut oil was favoured, in the thirties, it was cottonseed, and in the fifties, soy. Today, soy and corn oils predominate. The raw oil is pressed from the seeds, purified, hydrogenated, them fortified and coloured, either with a synthetic carotene or with annatto, a pigment extracted from a tropical seed. The water phase is usually reconstituted or skim milk that is cultured with lactic bacteria to produce a stronger flavour although pure diacetyl, the compound most responsible for the flavour of butter, is also used. Emulsifiers such as lecithin help disperse the water phase evenly throughout the oil, salt and preservatives are also commonly added. The mixture of oil and water is them heated, blended, and cooled. The softer tub margarines are made with less hydrogenated, more liquid oils than other types of margarines.

In 1860s French Emperor Louis Napoleon III offered a prize to anyone who could make satisfactory substitutes for buffer, suitable for use by the armed forces and the lower classes. French chemist Hippolyte Mege-Mouriezi invented a substance he called oleomargarine, which become, in shortened form, the trade name margarine and is now the generic term for a wide range of broadly similar edible oils. It is sometimes shortened to oleoleomargarine which was made by taking clarified beef fat, extracting the liquid portion under pressure, and then allowing it to solidify. When combined with butyrins and water, it made a cheap and more – or – less palatable butter substitute. Sold as margarine or under any of a host of other trade names, butter substitutes soon became big business but too late to help Mege-Mouriez. Although he expanded his initial manufacturing operation from France to the United States in 1873, he had little commercial success. By the end of the decade, however, artificial butters were on sale in both the old World and the new.

Margarine is naturally white or almost white; by forbidding the addition of artificial colouring agents, legislators found that they could keep margarine off kitchen tables. The bans became common place around the world and would endure for almost 100 years. It did not become legal to sell coloured margarine. In Australia, for example, until the 1960s. In the mean time, margarine manufactures had made changes. Modern margarine can be made from any of a wide variety of animal or vegetable fats, and is often mixed with skim milk, salt and emulsifiers. Liquid fats are transformed into suitable substrates by the chemical process of hydrogenation, which renders them  solid at room temperature. Many popular table spreads today are blends of margarine and butter. Something that was long illegal in the United States and Australia and no doubt parts of the world too and are designed to combine and the lower cost and easy – spreading of  artificial butter with the taste of the real thing.

Three main types of margarine are common:

Hard, generally uncoloured margarine for cooking or baking, which contains a high proportion of animal fat. “Traditional” margarines for such use as spreading on toast, which contain a relatively high percentage of saturated fats and made from either animal or vegetable oils. Margarines high in mono – poly – unsaturated fats, which are made from safflower, sunflower soybean, cottonseed, or olive oil. Margarine, particularly polyunsaturated margarine has become a major part of the Western dieted states, for example, in 1930 the average person ate over 8kg of butter a year and just over 1 kg of margarine By the and of the 20th century, an average American ate just under 2kg of butter and bearly 4kg of margarine. Based on the fact  that margarine can be obtained from vegetable fat and animal fat, this study to produce margarine from palm kernel melon $ coconut oils bland id to investigate if the product would be preferred over the sample in the market by the consumers. The odour and taste in the oils would be removed during processing for it not to affect the sample of margarine. Physical, chemical and sensory evaluation test would be employed to investigate the quality. With the results we will defer mine the degree of acceptance of the proudly by the consumers. 


Not What You Are Looking For?

For Quick Help Chat with Us Now!

+234 814 010 7220

+233 54 135 1187

Here's what our amazing customers are saying

Emmanuel Essential
Kogi state University
I actually took the risk,you know first time stuff But i was suprised i received as requested. I love you guys 🌟 🌟 🌟 🌟
Very Good
Azeez Abiodun
Moshood Abiola polytechnic
I actually googled and saw about iproject master, copied the number and contacted them through WhatsApp to ask for the availability of the material and to my luck they have it. So there was a delay with the project due to the covid19 pandemic. I was really scared before making the payment cause I’ve been scammed twice, they attended so well to me and that made me trust the process and made the payment and provided them with proof, I got my material in less than 10minutes
Very Good
Gbadamosi Solomon Oluwabunmi
Swift delivery within 9 minutes of payment. Thank you project master
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.


  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on +234 814 010 7220 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.


How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: +234 814 010 7220

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!