Select Currency
Translate this page


Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 75  |  1002 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000






1.1. Background of the Study

The Fisheries subsector is a significant source of fish food and livelihood for many people living in the coastal communities as it supplies animal protein necessary for growth and income. However, it has become clear that the challenges women are facing needs to be addressed and evaluated at their various levels. There is enormous need to study the challenges of artisanal women fisherfolks as they are regarded as the backbone of aquaculture. The engagement of women is particularly in coastal communities as women represent almost 50% of the total workforce engaged in fisheries around the world though have been generally overlooked in marine conservation and fisheries management in developing countries (Robinson, 2000).

In Africa particularly around the great lakes women have been participating more actively in promoting hygienic and food (fish) safety aspects of the landing sites (Den de pryck , 2012) but the focus has been mainly on post harvest roles. In Gambia, women have been involved with the National fisheries post harvest operators platform and participated in the formulation of fisheries Act (FAO, 2012). The World Bank, FAO and World fisheries (2012) found out that women make up to 47% of the fisheries supply chain workers, which is equal to about 56 million jobs in the harvest, and post harvest sectors.

Just in the harvest sector, FAO (2012) estimated that 5.4 million women worked either as fishers or fish farmers. Women account for half of the workforce in inland fisheries while in Asia and women market West Africa, 60 percent of the seafood. FAO (2012) also estimated that at least 30 percent of the people employed in fisheries (harvest and post harvest were women with regards to FAO (2008) majority of fishers (womenfolk’s) are poor, small scale fishers, their poverty and challenges encompasses more than just low income: It includes land ownership, high degree of indebtedness, poor access to health, education and financial capital and political and geographical marginalization. Fishing is often seen as a male activity, especially where this involves boats, equipment and long absences at sea or river but women play key roles in maintaining equipment, processing and marketing of the fish even though women roles are often less acknowledged. In Africa, for example women are charged with 80 percent of the food security (Mandosela, 2002) and 90 percent of the water security in rural and coastal communities (GWA, 2006). 

Women are crucial to fisheries and aquaculture sector worldwide, fisheries and aquaculture production activities provide an estimated 155million people of whom a substantial proportion is female in developing countries as most fishing activities fall into the small scale fisheries sector employing roughly 37 million people and directly affecting the livelihood, poverty prevention and alleviation and food security of approximately 357 million others. Various studies have been carried out on the roles of women in fishing activities as it made effort in revealing the strength of women in aquaculture agreeing with the fact that the world two major fish producing countries, China and India, women represent respectively 21% and 24% of all Fishers and fish farmers (FAO 2012). Women make up at least half of the inland fisheries workforce with 60% and 80% of seafood marketed by women in Asia and West Africa (FAO, 2012). Studies in West Africa, Cambodia and Thailand have shown that women own and manage fishing boats and may have their fishing gear. In some countries such as Ghana income from fisher wives is vital for supporting the entire fishing industry as they invest in canoes and other gears giving out loan to their husbands and other fishers. In Philippines, Cambodia, Thailand, Congo and most of the Pacific island the Fisher women have assumed a leading role in the rapid growth of aquaculture (Fish, shrimp mussel, seaweed, crab fattening) with their investment along the aquaculture value chains( production, processing and marketing).

In addition to providing food women collect fuel for energy in mangroves in plant and herbs for medicine from coastal forests and use coastal resources to support the economic stability of their families and communities from fishing activities. In respective of their strength in aquaculture according to United Nations Development Program UNDP (2009). The collapse of fisheries and degradation of other natural resources not only undermines food, health, energy and water security as it affects women folks and fisherwomen. The varying threats of women in aquaculture include omission of women from planning, implementing and monitoring of conservation initiative in accordance with cultural norms where the cultural norms may appear prohibitive and adaptive to the support of women engagement in natural resource management (Bene, 2003). Women are disproportionately represented in the unpaid labour force. Several cultural forces have been used in the past to keep women away from the fishing trade (Geheb et al., 2008). In some communities like the luo community in Kenya there is a law prohibiting menstruating women from going to the lake as they would contaminate the lake and affect it's productivity.

However the important role played by women in aquaculture have been to some extent derailed by the land tenure system which gives ownership right to males, inaccessibility to credit and saving services and facilities, high level of illiteracy and inadequate technical knowledge on pond management (Butt et al., 2010). These various challenges can be remediated by calling for special attention for more women to be involved in trainings and having more women extension agents( FAO, 2012), provide new aquaculture technology and opportunity for women empowerment also to create gender equality in women unequal place in fisheries, by enhancing women's role in fishery resource management with instances of them being owners of boat and gear, by participating in Fisheries organization and having active role in decision making at all levels ( Fisheries Administration, 2007). Proper measures must be taken into account to address the obstacles inhibiting women from managing their fisheries resources; increased exposure to health risk and other social, cultural, political and economic barriers. Unpaid work by women in support of fishing family enterprises has long been seen as being significantly important. Indeed, in some regions it is probably the major connection that women have with the fishing sub-sector. There are two aspects to this:

• Normal child minding and household management tasks

• Specific shore side management and other support provided to a family fishing concern (especially where the husband is at sea).


The role of women in the national development has begun to attract attention in recent years. In order to develop social standards of women and to enhance their participation in all economic activities, there is need to equip them with quality education in the area of latest technology in agriculture and industry (FAO, 1999). The women involvement in other fisheries sectors is diverse. It has increased significantly with the emergence of fish processing as a growth area within the manufacturing sector in the past years in Nigeria. The expansion in the industry during this time has largely been attributed to the contribution of women workers (FOS, 1998)

Women form the core of the industrial fisheries labour force through their involvement in post- harvest or processing activities. This mode of involvement conforms to perceived gender biases in development, where women are largely employed in areas pertaining to traditional labour divisions Women’s economic empowerment is a prerequisite for sustainable development (FAO, 2011). Achieving women’s economic empowerment requires sound public policies, a holistic approach and long-term commitment and gender-specific perspectives must be integrated at the design stage of policy and programming. Women must have more equitable access to assets and services; infrastructure programmers should be designed to benefit the poor, both men and women, and employment opportunities must be improved while increasing recognition of women’s vast unpaid work. Innovative approaches and partnerships include increased dialogue among development actors, improved co-ordination amongst donors and support for women organizing at the national and global level (UNICEF, 1990)

The development of aquaculture increased the demand for female labor and their participation is vital in the culture of fishery, especially in fish rearing, feeding and harvesting. Moreover, women act as knowledge bearers of traditional fish processing and preservation techniques. Thus, they play an important role in the transfer of knowledge from one generation to another. Fish processing for ethnic markets using traditional knowledge is an emerging important business among many fishing nations: where, women play great role in fish processing with traditional tastes and flavors (FAO, 2011). Generally, male dominance is a common feature in capture fishery and value chains. Still women play significant but invisible role in both capture fishery and aquaculture.


Despite the strenuous and pervasive involvement of women in fisheries activities, the women invaluable contribution is often overlooked and undocumented. Several cultural/traditional forces have been used in the past to keep women away from the fishing trade (Geheb et al., 2008). Also much work have not been done on the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats of the women fisherfolks engaged in aquacultural activities in rural and coastal populated fishing areas in Anambra state.


The general objective is to evaluate the challenges of women in aquacultural activities in the study area. The specific objectives include to:

I. Determine the socio-economic characteristics of the women involved in aquacultural activities in the study area.

II. Highlight the roles and potentials of women across small-scale fisheries and aquaculture development in the study area.

III. Identify the strengths and the opportunities available for the women fisherfolks to counteract their weaknesses and threats limiting their efficiency and potentials in the study area.

IV. Proffer appropriate recommendations to overcome the challenges.


This study will be of great benefits to the women and their stakeholders which include the rural and the urban female fish farmers in Anambra state and Nigeria as a whole.

1. The study will also help to highlight the unequal gender relations within and outside the household and organization of fisheries and its resources.

2. This study will bring to light  the roles and potentials of women involved in small scale fisheries and aquaculture as much work have not been levelled to the challenges of women involved in aquacultural activities in the study area.

3. This study will also enable the federal Government and state to create empowerment, adequate policies and programmes, adequate credit facilities to the women fisherfolks to ensure increased fish production, sustainability of poverty alleviation and natural resource management in coastal fishing communities.

4. This study will also help to identify the women fisherfolks strength in the view of overcoming their weakness and ensure that the women's role in the fisheries sector do not remain invisible and the need to increase their right to participate in decision making processes with respect to fisheries planning management in as much to explore their opportunities so as to tackle their threats in the study area.

5. The result of the study will also serve as a source of reference and guide to other researchers who wish to do similar work on this topic in future.


Not What You Are Looking For?

For QUICK Help Call Us Now!

+234 813 2926 373

+234 701 5050 881

Here's what our amazing customers are saying

Emmanuel Essential
Kogi state University
I actually took the risk,you know first time stuff But i was suprised i received as requested. I love you guys 🌟 🌟 🌟 🌟
Very Good
Azeez Abiodun
Moshood Abiola polytechnic
I actually googled and saw about iproject master, copied the number and contacted them through WhatsApp to ask for the availability of the material and to my luck they have it. So there was a delay with the project due to the covid19 pandemic. I was really scared before making the payment cause I’ve been scammed twice, they attended so well to me and that made me trust the process and made the payment and provided them with proof, I got my material in less than 10minutes
Very Good
Gbadamosi Solomon Oluwabunmi
Swift delivery within 9 minutes of payment. Thank you project master
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.


  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on 0813-292-6373 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.


How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: (+234) 813-292-6373

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!