THE APPLICATION OF STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL IN PLASTIC PRODUCING INDUSTRY

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THE APPLICATION OF STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL IN PLASTIC PRODUCING INDUSTRY

 

ABSTRACT

For any organization to achieve its objectives of profit maximization, it is required that its products must be of high quality, so as to satisfy its customers and be able to compete with any other product in the market. To obtain quality products therefore, some control measures such as quality control method are needed in production process of any organization. This research work centres on the application of statistical quality control in plastic production to ensure that the quality of plastic produced does not deviate from the set standards. Data was collected on weight of plastics produced from proper recorded information, by the means of secondary method of data collection. Analysis was carried out using mean chart and range charge The charts were simultaneously used in the analysis to investigate process average weight and the individual variability. It is observed that the process is under control, since the weight of the plastics falls within the specification limits. 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The idea of using statistical quality control in production setting has its beginning in 1924 by Walter Shewhart of the Bell Telephone Laboratory. All organization that produce goods and services for the entire populace, always aim at producing and providing such goods that are acceptable by consumers. Quality control in recent times has become a necessary tool operation to all organization, whose goal is to excel and remain in business. This is apparent because the quality of a product or services is the measure of the ability of a product or service, to fulfill or satisfy consumers implicit expectation or explicit requirement. However, the American Standard Institute defines quality control as, the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on it the ability to satisfy a given need. Thus to obtain the desired quality, it becomes imperative to control all the factor that will impart the necessary or needed quality on the product or service. In addition, the objective of quality control is to provide quality that is satisfactory in the term of safety, adequacy, reliability and economy, particularly in this period of advancement in industrial development, which much emphasis is put on standard for products.

In some industries measurement, inspection and testing are done frequently by people or with devices to ascertain that the required quality is sent into the market. Statistical quality control method enables us to obtain maximum benefit out of production and inspection at lowest cost. It is one of the most useful economic applications of the theory of sampling and is significant in industries. Furthermore, it is apparent of the danger associated with dependent on mono-cultural type of economy which is characterized in most of the developing countries since worldwide out glut of 1982, it has become totally clear that the petroleum oil is a major export commodity cannot salvage the entire economy of the country. Thus, concerted effort has to be made for diversification; this entails generating foreign exchange. This could only be done effectively by making our locally manufactured product more competitive in terms of quality and price hence, the need for a dynamic quality control system is needed.

A total quality control system fundamentally involves the specification of what is required, product designed to meet the specification. The inspection to guarantee the conformity with standard, with at the back of our mind, we know that production being defined as the process of manufacturing goods and services for human consumptions is incomplete until the said products reaches the final consumer. In this context reaching the final consumer here implies the consumer accepting the product. Thus, the importance of quality control cannot be over stressed here since it is clear that a consumer can only accept a product whose quality is high. Thus the factors which should be given due attention in pursuance of sound productivity include provision of suitable work environment in research development. In addition, among the numerous merits of quality control in the industry include the following:

a.  It brings about great improvement in quality and productivity

b.  Provides information concerning quality of products

c.   Leads to efficiency and is less costly

d.  Leads to greater profit

Despite all these advantages there are also problems associated with quality control which includes:

i.  Absence of trained personnel

ii.  Insufficiency of quality raw materials

iii.  Inadequate records of statistical information

However, when these problems are effectively taken care of, the quality control plastic industry such as ADAOBI PLASTIC NIG LTD requires the use of statistical quality control techniques for the assessed of the quality of its products. Plastic are “one of the greatest innovation of the millennium” (on the cover of new week) and have certainly proved their reputation to be true. It has been one of the most used material in recent times. Based on the fact that the quality of plastic determines its durability and marketing. Today competition is high on the usage of plastic. In Nigeria most people like, researchers will like to see plastic improvement. To survive these ADAOBI PLASTIC NIG LTD has to meet the requirement by improving in the quality of the materials and services used in its production as well as reducing wastage and operational cost.

1.2 HISTORY OF ADAOBI PLASTIC NIG LTD

Adaobi Nigeria Limited was incorporated in Nigeria on the 28th June 1979 as a private company. The company was on incorporation engages in the business of importation and distribution of plastic product, polythene bags, sheets and wrappers. Having acquired vast experience in polythene marketing the company decided to own manufacturing outfit. It commence in the production of polythene product in the year 1984. The company manufactures agro-polythene sheet and convenience shopping bags. Its products are used both within and outside the country especially within ECOWAS states and Cameroons. Decisions of having another factory to supplement the existing one, the company in the year 2000 commenced the construction of a solid mineral processing plant. It went into production in the year 2001. The chemical plant is primarily engaged in the processing of solid minerals. Recognizing the vital role information plays in business growth and the impetus. It has received in recent times, reducing the world to a global village, the company in 2002 veered into info-tech services in addition to other businesses.

In the year 2007 the company diversified further on her range of products in plastic division, which include production of hard plastic, blow and injection moulding, downsizing on soft filin products. This diversion brought into the company’s range of product like jerry cans and hangers which include 20 litres, 25 litres and 50litres jerry can. All these things were done in order to meet everyday need of the people.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

i.  To maintain the quality of product and to keep the quality of the product from dropping below the desired level during production.

ii.  To offer useful suggestions to the company under study towards the improvement of quality control.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The importance of this study aimed, that in the long run the finding will reveal the benefits of statistical quality control in a production process. Also, it is hoped that this study will serve as a clue to manufacturers while producing for consumers to:

i.  Enable goods produced to meet specifications

ii.  Enable manufacturers to accept only standard quality material during production

iii.  Help the company in maximizing profit

iv.  Enhance customer’s satisfaction

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.  Do the finished product confirm to the set standard.

2.  Is the company incurring unnecessary wastage?

3.  What are the company standard in plastic production?

4.  Could the irregular and inadequate supply of quality control of plastic material reduce the production in industry?

5.  How the company would maintain a steady standard?

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study covers quality control problem and its possible solutions to the manufacturing industries. It concentrates on the process and operation of ADAOBI PLASTIC NIG LTD.

1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This research will concentrate on the process and operations of ADAOBI PLASTICS. It will limit its scope to the quality control techniques used by this firm. This project work is limited to a particular area to ensure accuracy of data collected and such should be restricted to just a production firm to avoid misappropriation.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Quality: This is the degree of a given product confirms to specification and standard.

Control: This is the means of regulating and keeping in order or check.

Quality control: A mechanism to maintain and control the quality of manufactured goods to ensure the conformity of the product with standard.

Production: This is the process of manufacturing goods and services for human consumption.

Inspection: This is a means of examining in a process or finished parts to determine their conformity to specification

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