PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF COOKIES PRODUCED FROM BLENDS OF MALTED SORGHUM, SPROUTED BLACK BEANS AND COOKED COCOYAM FLOUR, PROXIMATE ANALYSIS, MINERALS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Over the years the production of cookies of various types has improved with the advancement of new technology in most of the manufacturing industries in Nigeria; the cookies industries tend to be the most popular among most of the manufacturing industries in Nigeria. Cookies vary with types, method of production and the materials used in the manufacturing process; the ingredient used in the production of biscuits is different from those used in the production of other snacks as so on. Before we go deep into the study we will like to know what cookies is all about; well a cookie is small, flat, sweet, baked good, usually containing flour, eggs, sugar, and either butter, cooking oil or another oil or fat. It may include other ingredients such as raisins, oats, chocolate chips or nuts.

Considering biscuits as one of the cookies produced from blends of malted sorghum, sprouted black beans and cooked cocoyam flour are one of the popular cereal foods, consumed in Nigeria. They are ready made food for consumption, convenient and inexpensive food products, containing digestive and dietary principles of vital importance according to (Kulkarni, 1997). They are nutritive snacks produced from unpalatable dough that is transformed into appetizing products through the application of heat in the oven according to (Olaoye et al., 2007). However most of these foods are poor sources of protein and such contribute to poor nutritional quality as stated by (Akpapunam and Darbe, 1994; Aloba 2001).

Being a ready to eat convenient food product, it is important to be fortified with vitamins and minerals (Elizabeth et al., 1999) and enriched with other protein sources such as oil seeds and legumes. Although legumes are an important part of traditional diets around the world, they are often neglected in typical Western diets. Legumes are inexpensive, nutrient dense sources of protein that can substitute dietary animal protein (Anderson et al., 1999). Not only are legumes excellent sources of essential minerals, but they are also rich in dietary fibre and other phytochemicals that may affect health.

1.2   MATERIAL COMPOSITION OF COOKIES

The material composition of cookies as regards the topic above will include:

Blends of malted sorghum  250g

Sprouted black beans         120g

Cooked cocoyam flour        220g

Salt                                  5g

Water                               80g

Thickening                        5g

Glucose                            15g

Skimmed milk powder       120g

Sodium bicarbonate          3g

Ammonium bicarbonate    3g

Lecithin                           2g

Glycerol-mono-sterate      2g

Minerals and flavour etc.   3g

1.3     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

What really instigated the study on the physiochemical and sensory evaluation of cookies produced from blends of malted sorghum, sprouted black beans cooked cocoyam flour, proximate analysis, minerals was due to improper calculation of the material composition of most cookies manufactured from most of the manufacturing industries in Nigeria as a result leading to food poisoning and early expiration of products (cookies). Secondly most of these manufactured cookies as not head friendly, some are not moisture friendly; when there is a failed sensory evaluation of the manufactured cookies, and precaution will not be given in terms of method of storage of such products.

1.4   AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The main aim of the study is to carry out a physiochemical study and a sensory evaluation of cookies produced from blends of malted sorghum, sprouted black beans and cooked cocoyam flour. Other specific objectives of the study are:

i.   To produce cookies from blends of malted sorghum, spouted black beans and cooked cocoyam.

ii.   To carry out a proximate analysis on the material composition of the raw materials used in the production of the cookies.

iii.   To make a composite analysis of the raw materials used in the production of cookies.

iv.   To monitor anti-nutritional factors in the manufacturing processes.

v.   To proffer solution to the above stated problems.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In order to ascertain the above stated objectives, the study came up with the following research questions. The research questions are stated below as follows:

i.   How to cookies from blends of malted sorghum, spouted black beans and cooked cocoyam?

ii.   How to carry out a proximate analysis on the material composition of the raw materials used in the production of the cookies?

iii.   How to carry out a composite analysis of the raw materials used in the production of cookies?

iv.   What are the anti-nutritional factors in the manufacturing processes of cookies?

1.6    STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

HYPOTHESIS 1

H0:  The manufactured cookies do not have good quality attributes 

H1:  The manufactured cookies have good quality attributes

HYPOTHESIS 2

H0:  The composition of raw materials in the cookies is bad

H1:  The composition of raw materials in the cookies is good.

1.7  SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study physiochemical and sensory evaluation of cookies produced from blends of malted sorghum, sprouted black beans and cooked cocoyam flour will be of immense benefit to most of the manufacturing industries, the consumers, the whole seller on the quality attributes of the manufactured cookies from the above stated ingredients as it will discuss the importance of the presence of each ingredients to human health, the study will also benefit other researchers that wishes to carry out similar research on the above stated topic.

1.8  SCOPE OF STUDY

The study physiochemical and sensory evaluation of cookies produced from blends of malted sorghum, sprouted black beans and cooked cocoyam flour will cover the areas of sensory evaluation such as colour, taste, texture, mouth feels etc and also a proximate analysis will be carried out in areas of presence of moist, fat, carbohydrate, protein etc.

1.9 LIMITATION OF STUDY

FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS: financial constraints tends to impede the researchers ability to get all the materials needed for the purpose of the study in large quantity but the research students was able to carry out the experiment with the materials available

TIME CONSTRAINTS: the researcher, being a student will be involved in other departmental activities like attendance to lectures, submission of assignment and presentation of seminar but the research was able to meet up with the time allocated for the completion of the research work. 

1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS

COOKIE: a sweet baked food that is usually small, flat, and round and is made from flour and sugar.

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