1.0 THE BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Malaria is a febrile illness caused by a protozoan of the germs plasmodium present public health problem and cause suffering and premature death in tropical and subtropical countries, because of htier ample rainfall; and long periods, of warmth which favour both mosquito breeding and human infection (Adams and Magraitt 1980,),
In many endemic area, malaria increases and difficult to control because of the resistance of the parasite to antimalaria drings and the failure of vector control measures: At present, about two billion population live in malarious zone. Every year, 200-300 million people are due to the disease. Most of the victims are children under five (5) and pregnant women in areas of stable malaria (intence malaria) transmission. Malaria also poses a risk to travellers, tarists and immigrants and exotic cases of malaria are
There are four species of Plasmodium which infects humans. although infection is generally cases occur in the USA and other countries which are otherwise free of malaria transmission. Falciparum, and Plasmodium vivaz, which are found throughout malaria belt. Plasmodium malaria is widely distributed but less common Plasmodium Ovale is rare but it tends to replace P. Viax in west Africa where it has been linked with Lack of Duffy blood group by (John Murray, 1880).
The life cycle of the malaria (Plasmodium protozoa) includes of the malaria (plasmodium protozoa)includes three basic stages. The first stage occurs in the mosgintos body (Exogenous stage). The second and the third stages take place in a persons body (exogenous stage) the first stage begins where the mosginto bites Samoan who has malaria. Plasmodium enter the insects body and reproduce in its stomach. The protozoan young tin their way into the mosguito saliva. The second stage occurs after the mosquito bites another person. Plasmodia.
During the third stage, each plasmodium invades a red blood cell, where it multiples again. The infected blood cells eventually rapture and release large numbers of plasmodia, which invades additional red blood cells. This invasism, multiplying and cell rupture by, the parasites continues, causing the periodic attacks of fever that are typical of malaria. An attack occurs each time the red blood cells rupture. Some plasmodia develop further in human blood and are able to reproduce in a mosquitoes body. They enter the insects body when the mosquito bites a person their life cycle begins again.
Figure: THE LIFE CYCLE OF THEMALARIA PARASITE
Human malaria can be transmitted only by female anopheline mosquitoes. In addition to transmitting malaria, anophelines also transmits filariasis and some viral disease, but other mosquitos are more important as vectors of the two latter infections. The Anopheless belong to the order of Diptera, sub-order Nematocera, family culicidae sub-family culicinae and tribe Anophelim in the zoological classification.. within the tribe Anophelin, the germs anopheles has several sub-genera. (Ketchum 1984).
There are about 400 species of Anophelese mosquitoes throughout the world, but only some 60 species are vectors of malaria under natural conditions: of these some 30 species are of major importance. Natural susceptibility or resistance of Anapheles to infection with a defined species of malaria parasite is largely unexplained though it is certainly related to biochemical processes in the body of the mosquito and to its nutritional requirements. Among the main factors determining whether a particular species of Abophelese is an important vector, the frequency of its feeding on man (in preference to animals) is of particular relevance. The other factors are the mean longevity of the local population of an anpheline species and its density in relation to man. Thus, a particular species of Anopheles may be an important vector in one area of the world and of no importance in another area. Although Anopheles mosquitoes are most frequently seen in tropical or subtropical regions, they are found in termperate climates. They life expertance of the mosquito depends on enviroenmntal conditions.
The external morphology of both female and male anophels provides the main criteria for recognising both the genus and the species of these mosquito. The successive stages of growth and metamorphosis of the mosquito are the egg, lava, pupa and finally the adult or imigo.
In general, malaria is yound in regions lying roughly between latitute 60N and 400 of the equator. The impart of malaria on any population depends upon its epidemilogical pattern. Nigeira has endemic and stable malaria (Meneudez, 1995).
CLASSIFICATION = (Beadle 1977) classified malaria parasite as follows:-
- Phylum - Protozoa
- Class - Sporozoa
- Order - Coccidida
- Sub-order - Haemosporina
- Family - Plasmodidae
- Germs - Plasmodium
Thus plasmodium (protozoa: Haemo sporina) secure malaria to man and it is atransmitted by female Anopheline mosquitoo during blood meal.
Malaria cause by Four species of Plasmodium.
Malaria cause by P. Falciparium is refered to as Falciparium malaria, formely known as subtertian (ST) or malignant tertian (MT) malaria. It is the msot widespread, accounting for up tpo 80% of malaria cases worldwide. P. Falciparum is the msot pathogenic of the human malaria species with untreated infections causing severe disease and death, particularly in yousng children, pregnant women and no-immune adults. According to (Trigg and kondrachine, 1998) P. Facciparum causes yearly 300 million to 500 million cases of clinical illness and 1-5 million to 2.7 million deaths in sub-saharan Africa, plus 5-20 million clinical cases and 100,000 deaths else where in the world 80% of them in Asta.
In a pregnant women, Normal immune responses are reduced during pregnancy. In areas of stable malaria transmission, a pregnant women will have acquired partial immunity to malaria. This will protect her against serious clinical Falciparum malaria but not present heavy parastic infection of the placenta and anaemia (often severe) which can result in a low birth weight baby which may not survive.
Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax is referred as vivax, formerly known as benign tertian (BT) malaria.
Malaria caused by Plasmodium Ovale is referred to as ovale malaria, formerly known as ovale tertian malaria. While that of Plasmodium malaria is referred to as malariae malaria, also referred to as quartan malaria.
Infections caused by P.Vivax, P. Ovale or P.malarine are rarely life – threatening according to parasite cells does not occure and parasitic densities are lower. In vivax and ovale malaria, parasites numbers rarely exceed 50000 /N/ or 2% of cells infected, and in quatan malaria (P. malaria) parasite numbaer are usually less than 10,000/ML with only up to 1% of cells becoming infected.
P.Vivax and Ovale malaria has a common feature “Relapses” due to the delayed development of pre-erythrocytic (PE) schizonts from hyprozoites in liver cells. While P. Malariae has a feature of repeated malaria attacks due to recrudescence caused by small numbers of erythrocytic forms of the parasite persisting in the host, possibly as a recent of parasitic antigenic charge.
A serious complication infection with P. Malariae is “ne phrotic syndrome” which may head to renal failure. It occurs more frequently in children and is caused by damage to the kidneys following the deposition of antigen anti-body completes on the glomerular basement membrane of the kidney.
1.1 AIM AND OBJECTIVE
1. The aim of this research project is to demonstrate the incidence of malaria infestation caused by different species of plasmodium
2. To identify the commonest species of plasmodium implicated in the attack.
3. To identify stages of plasmodium in the patients.
4. To confirms the population at risk
5. To make recommendation that would assist in the reduction or eradication of malaria especially among children in Enugu metropolis and the society ins general.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
The major problem with diseases in developing world has been the failure to set realistic priorities with respect to both research and control. As clinical diagnosis fail to effectively lay emphasis on species specificity in malaria attack, and as there are today increasing cases of chloroquine resistant in malaria therapy, a good knowledge of species specificity may help to claudicate the lathert causes of the problems in malaria therapy. Finding from this work will clearly identify the followings:
1. The different species of plasmodium treatment
2. The nature of the stages in man
H1 There are four species of plasmodium evenly distributed in human population
H2 Some species of plasmodium are more prevalent then others.
H3 Plasmodium parasitenia is higher in children than in adults.
H1P Plasmodium parastitenia is equal in all age cohorts.
1. The four species of plasmodium is prevalent among the resident of Enugu state. They infect humans and cause malaria.
2. All species are vector borne disease, being spread by aropheline mosquitoes, and the disease is distributed throughout the
1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This work is only carried out in parkland general hospital Enugu. While compiling this project, the following problems were met:
1. Finance: As a student, I did not have enough money to reach up to the demands of this study.
2. Time factor: it is actually time consuming for the researcher in that this project is to be completed within a short period of time.
3. Lack of materials: The laboratory is too busy in that, not all the materials needed is provided at a given time.
4. Lack of cooperation from staff: some staff feel reluctant in providing the materials needed, some feel that materials may be stooling or damage.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to examination of incidence of malaria infestation caused by different species of plasmodium in Enugu metropolis. The area of work covers parkland general Hospital Enugu. As a general hospital, which is standard I feel that they will give me more information and provide me with the materials needed to carry out this work.