EFFECTIVE MOTIVATIONAL PROGRAMMES AND PRODUCTIVITY IN GOVERNMENT PARASTATALS

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EFFECTIVE MOTIVATIONAL PROGRAMMES AND PRODUCTIVITY IN GOVERNMENT PARASTATALS

 

(A Case Study Of Imo State Health Management Board)

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION.

There is clearly and widely accepted belief that the economy of this counting is weak. This has in effect caused such as untold economic hardship to the populace, such that has never been experienced in the history of Nigeria since its independence. It is an acknowledged view that the economy of the entire world is undergoing recessional period. This is much noticeable and hard- feet in the third world countries of which Nigeria is one. 
Nigeria is much up of thirty- six (36) state and Abuja as the federal Capital territory (FTC) and she practices mixed economy ideology system. This is an inheritance from her colonial masters. This resulted to her economic structure in relation to ownership of factors of production being divided into sectors. Earlier before the outset of the third commendable and the standard of living was fairly high, as the purchasing power of our currency was also high. The factors that led into the buoyancy were the revenue that was constantly earned from the sales of crude oil. 
The second factor was that the nation’s agricultural productivity was also higher than what is obtainable now. Some of the resultant effect of high flow of revenue from crude oil was that people became reluctant to work and displayed a great deal of non- chalet attitude towards the continuation of their agriculture and small sale industrial operations. This subsequently led to a decrease in productivity of goods and services. It further resulted in an increased dependence on imported oil. Thus, there existed a great disparity between our foreign exchange earnings and our expenditure of which the later was greater. 
The emergence of the oil, glut, made it clear that Nigerian’s economy is hanging on a balance. This situation led to the introduction of the structural Adjustment programmes other wise known as ‘SAP’ by the Babangide administration. This was designed to help bring the rumblings economy its shape. The main strategy here is to reduce the rush for foreign goods, increase production locally and to restructure the entire economy to operate at a greater degree of indecency from foreign influence. The role of effective management of financial, material and human resources cannot therefore be underestimated as one of the means of achieving these economic goals. The government is doing her best through viable policy plans and strategies to influxes substantial materials and financial resources of the two arms in production and ultimate economic stability. 
On the note, its very important to recognize that for economic growth to be achieved, full and effective consideration must be given to the well being of the individual workers that required to carryout their respective activities in the economic system. When workers are being taken care of, there is the tendency for increased productivity. If productivity increases, there will be the urge for generating more revenue (that is profit) from taxes to the government. Undertaking higher motivational programmes on the individual workers can only do this as it effects human resources management among other factors of production. 
It is the objectives of the study to examine the extent if positive effect that could be achieved through effective motivational programmes on productivity unique semi- independent government sector called prostates.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 
There is an ‘Igbo’ adage which says that ‘a collectively owned goat starves to death’. But why? This adage goes to explain the differences that have been existing in efficiency, effectiveness and productivity between the private owned and government establishments. 
The main functional area of these parastatals is centered on provision of services of various types such as healthcare, information dissemination, electricity supply and so on. Competition between these private organizations that offer the same services in the parastatals and the parastatals themselves therefore exists.
People seems to patrnize private sectors than the public sectors, Reasons, being that the private sectors that offer similar services are more efficient and also offer them with keen interest. Typical examples are a situation where people patronize private owned hospitals. The question now is ‘why do people drift away from patronizing public set up.’? 
A caused interview confirmed some serious complaints by the members of the public over the uncaring and non-chalet attitudes of these government hospital workers. 
Conversely, a very close fact finding investigation within the workers confirmed these allegation further questioning as to why workers behave that way, gave the investigator these impressions and they include the following;

- High degree of frustration and stigma in the work place. 
- Wrong timing in administration of salaries, wages and fringe benefits and other various ills that have befallen the workers which involve bribery, corruption, inefficiency and ultimately downward plunging of productivity which would continue unless something is done to remedy these problems.

1.3 RESEACH QUESTIONS. 
-Is motivation really a means of achieving the desired result in an organization?

- Dose it mean that effectiveness of production depends on the motivated factors of employees? 
- Has efficiency be improved since some motivated system was introduced?

1.4 PURPOSE / SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY. 
The basic motive of this study is to find out the role which effective motivational programmes have played in the continues decrease in productivity in government parastatals, despite that the government has from time to time invested a substantial amount of financial, material and human resources in them. 
Furthermore, the purpose of this study is also to look into the internal components of these human resources with special reference to the motivational efforts made by the management for the workers which will ultimately determine their behavior and attitude to work. The efficient and effective utilization of mind and motivation. 
Lab our is the most sensitive factor of production. It is human and it needs substantial economic, social and spiritual support to survive. Therefore, it is important to observe the efficient success and survival of other factors of production and the organization as a whole.
The ultimate achievement of goals and objectives of an organization is to maximize profit with the available lab our given them the required thins to motivate them. 
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY. 
The main reason why this research is carried out in wider perspectives is the researcher’s concern over the wider spread outcry by the entire populace of this country over the present state of the economy. In the light of this, both individuals and governments towards reviving the determine are making various efforts and sacrifices are being made by both individuals and governments towards reviving the deteriorating economy.
Psychologically, people’s attitude towards work desire for personal betterment and achievement, and confidence in future, affects a nation’s economic growth by learning what kind of attitude and motivations people have on the kind of effect upon economic behavior and status. 
Therefore, high productivity is a vital component of a growing economy and all avenues must be exploited towards achieving this objective. 
The need for the study therefore, becomes stronger and consequently concentrates on the desire to find out how and to what extent effective motivational programmes could help in making workers to increase their productivity.

1.5 ASSUMPTION OF THE STUDY
Low productivity could be traced to be caused by many economic variables such as lackadaisical attitude of the workers, which would be due to lack of motivation.
Hence the researcher assumes the following;

- That through adequate budgetary, allocations and subsidies these parastatals are provided with adequate financial resources. 
- That the government makes every effort to provide all the material resources required to maintain the efficient and effective functioning of these parastatals. 
- That the lab our –factor component of the parastatals are knowledgeable, skilled and experienced enough and that their job allocations are unique with their personal potentials.
- That the public will be willing to patronize these parastatals if they were assured of adequate and efficient services commensurate with the value of their income expended for such services.

1.6 LIMITATIONS OF SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is carried out with the geographical boundaries of Imo State of Nigeria. The focus of study in the wider economic perspective is the public arm of the economy, owned and controlled by the government, which operate under the name ‘parastatals.’ The parastatals, which is selected as a case study of this research is in Imo State Management Board.

1.7 DEFFINITION OF TERMS. 
1) MOTIVATION: This is an individual’s inner state that causes the person to behave in a way that ensures the accomplishment of some goals. 
2) MANAGEMENT: Is the process of reaching the organizational goal by working with and through people and other organizational resources.

3) MOTIVATION STRENTH: This is an individual’s degree of desire to perform a behavior.

4) MOTIVATION FACTORS: These are the set of items that influence the degree of job satisfaction. 
5) ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS: This refers to the degree to which the organization accomplishes its objectives.

6) PRODUCTIVITY This is the relating of input to output to defect whether the organization is moving forward or not.

7) EQUITY: This is the right an ordinary shareholder has to the share in the profit of the organization.

8) RESEARCH: This is part of the company’s activities concerned with discovering new products for the company and for making technical improvements in existing ones. 
9) HERARCHY OF NEEDS: By maslow’s ‘state of Human Needs’ he described hierarchy of needs as the arrangement of human needs in an order in which individuals generally strive to satisfy themselves. And these needs are arranged in a hierarchy of importance as follow; 
Physiological needs security, Security needs social, social needs Esteem, and Esteem needs Self- actualization.

10) ORGANIZATION: This is the act of integrating and co-coordinating the efforts of different individual and gives purpose to there efforts in terms of objectives to be accomplished.

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