1.1 Background to the Study
Man is an entity but does not survive alone, that is he does not live in isolation but lived in relationship with those around him. This idea of living together calls for cooperation which is expressed in all the institutions man has ever known. The family is the institution. Since the inception of marriage which was ordained by nature, it has gone a long way of influencing the society both positively and negatively depending largely on the co-actors. Marriage though defined by the Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of current English is an instance of legal union of a man and a woman as husband and wife that is a state of being married. On the other hand, marriage is a basic institution of any culture. The state and the church powerfully support it. It is a cornerstone of any culture through which companionship and sex relationship of man and woman achieve their fullest and richest expression. It is through it that children are revival maintain.
The marriage institution dates back as far as the creation of man according to Christian religion belief and stated in Genesis when God said let make man in his image after our own likeness. And God said “it is not good that man should be alone, I will make a help mate for him” and he made a woman and brought her into man to be his wife. God institutionalized marriage. Historically, most societies encourage marriage and give high status to married persons. Parents particularly, fathers are actively involved in the choice of marriage partners for their children (both male and female) especially females. This is because women do not only marry their husband but the whole of its extended family. They do not join since the woman’s future is wrapped up in her choice and often which the woman lies access to maintain their judgment. The parents have lived longer than have seen more deeply or more days than them (children) because they know the people and know the families into which the girl is going because the couple have to marry with full approval of their families or will break away sharply and probably painful.
The role of the husband and wife were predetermined that the husband is to cam the wing and act as a protector and channel of communication with the outside world. That of the wife being to maintain the well being of the family and household and that these roles were expected by society to the extent that it was prepared to take little or no responsibility in the extent of tension and unhappiness. Perhaps in some ways the rigidity determined boundaries. The African society (of which Oredo is a typical example) is very complex at least spiritually. Many things that happen in the water world where there exist match making and marriage which they consider age, proximity, social class, education, physical character, family influence and care to make the marriage successful.
Today, the ideal of the arranged marriage seem old and the recently avoided Asian immigrants who still follow this practice are regarded by their fellow citizen as primitive and behind the time. Yet it has many advantages, one of the importance of which is the likelihood of greater tolerance of disharmony simply because the unhappy spouse does not feel the need for self-blame and can project the responsibility for the unhappiness upon the parent who choose unwisely. According to Lyn Gill (1980) as a Gird for unhappiness and psychologically ills rage scene from divorce stated that “the generation ago, divorce was so scandalous and out the originally that it was scarcely even conventional misery within a respectable marriage”.
Divorce according to Stars, the Rockefellers who no longer had to care about what other people taught of them and were powerful enough to energy the publicity. Even at this, divorce still leaves indelible mark on some. It is on record that divorce damaged Aldai-Stevenson’s presidential in the 1960s. According to Nita Kolen (1981) “society up till today maintain that the main shadows of a husband quadrants security, respect and pride for the women”. But with all these privilege that goes with marriage, sociologists have found to their dismay that there are six (6) basic classes of family disorganization of which divorce is a prime factor. Individual factors would include the various physical intellectual and personality components that comes into play whenever two or more people interacts in so far as individual factors are concerned, the limit seems to be interminable, social incompatibility, personality problems, infidelity excessive drinking, financial difficulties, in-law relationship, etc.
One or more studies for example indicate that the following are associated with divorce:
1. Low socio-economic status.
2. Pair divorce
3. Early age of marriage
4. Certain kinds of cross-clan marriage
5. Premarital pregnancy
6. Being raised up in broken homes
However, divorce is a grave social-misdemeanor, agonizing, suspect and against the moral grain but unfortunately, divorce figures continue to climb and couples split effects their actions will have on the academic achievement of their siblings. They take the wrong step to solving maternal problem. These divorce hide under the motion that marriage has always been a shifting transitory arrangement. “Till death do us part” used to be a realistic assessment of the registry in local government secretariat to complete the marriage ritual. After all the above aforementioned issues, it will be very imperative for us to ask what then are the problems or effects of divorce in our society in general, with regard to the child’s advice achievements. It seems to be the question that needs answer and solution.
Divorce may not only mean the end of living together between a man and a woman but also breeds instability in the society such as problem of delinquent children and some other complete cities, one increase in the rate of suicide, drunkenness, promiscuity and so on. These problems affect the socio-economic and political life of any society coupled with the child’s academic achievement. Most importantly and publicized aspects of divorce is the effects on children of such parents since the divorce rate itself has risen dramatically. The actual number of children affected has correspondingly reached a staggering proportion. Some of them turn out to become robbers, thieves and notorious when they experience hardship. All these constitute unhealthy social atmosphere in the society, hence the retard progress of the nation in all realm since they serve as log in the wheel of progress.
1.2 Statement of the Problems
Divorce in our society today has given rise to problem of various dimensions. They include growth of indiscipline and lawlessness in our society, armed robbery, thieves, drug abuse and addiction, sex abuse, the indiscriminate behaviour such as branchy in school, pick-pocketing, lying, examination malpractices and disrespect to constituted authority.
1.3 Research Questions
Based on the above assumption, the following are the researchable questions:
1. Do children from broken homes do well in class?
2. What are the immoral behaviours of children from broken homes?
3. Do children from broken homes involve themselves in drug addiction, truancy and disrespect to constituted authority?
4. To what extent are these children affected socially, psychologically and emotionally?
5. Is it right to say that parents and extended family interference have influence on marital break-up?
1.4 Purpose of the Study
1. The main purpose of this study is to bring about a clear examination into the problem facing marriage which leads to divorce.
2. Also to equally examine the role of supervisor in directing and guiding partners against divorce.
3. This study is aimed at embarking on an assessment of the classes of people in the society which divorce rate is predominant.
4. Moreso, the study equally aimed at undertaking an indebt equally of the effects of divorce on children’s academic achievement.
1.5 Significance of the Study
Although, divorce has been in existence from time immemorial, little or nothing has been done to remedy its effect s on the educational and development of the children. As a matter of fact, the effect on children’s academic achievement as a result of divorce cannot be over-emphasized. This survey of divorce among women on children’s academic achievement will help to resuscitate marriage and improve marriage relationship in order to eliminate the high rate of divorce especially. This study will be of immense benefit to the following areas. It will help the educational planners and ministry of education to device a means of helping these children to improve in their academic achievement by organizing individual instructions for the victims. It will help to bring to the awareness of such parents the damages and harm they have caused to the children they have raised up or brought to the world. Education curriculum planners will find it very important based on this study to incorporate instructional technology in school system for the benefit of such people.
1.6 Assumptions of the Study
Certain assumptions are made with regard to the divorce on women and its effects on children’s academic achievements. It is assumed that divorce among parents greatly affects their academic achievement. Another assumption is that girls rather than boys are the main victims of various influences on children’s academic achievement which normally affects them in future.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
This study focuses attention on students in primary and secondary schools. This study was delimited to 5 primary and secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State namely, Idia Secondary School, Payne Primary School,, Edo College, Eware Primary School, Itohan Secondary school. These schools have been chosen because they are all from different locations in Oredo Local Government Area.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
One limitation of the study was the difficulty in securing accurate and honest responses from respondents. Some respondents might not have disclose all their problems while some might neglect the use of respondents’ perceptions to judge the accuracy of parents’ perceptions. On the other hand, they themselves might have tricked them which they felt were likely to, but which did not really bother their children. Another limitation of this study is that the result and findings may not be generalizable to the whole of Edo State, let alone Nigeria, and for all children problems, especially at itemized and categorized n the other sections of the questionnaire as well as for all ages of divorce victims.
1.9 Definition of Terms
As a first step to understanding the problems and some causes of divorce as well as its effects on children’s academic achievements, it is necessary to define various terms that can be encountered. Thee terms could mean another thing outside the context:
Divorce: Is the legal ending of marriage between couples so that husband and wife are free to remarry again.
Divorcee: This is either a divorced woman or man who is free by law to remarry.
Marriage: This is the act of two partners living together as husband and wife.
Academic Achievement: This is the performance of children in a given examination or test after receiving series of lectures.
Sorogate: This is a custom in which a widowed man gain access to his wife’s sister.
Juvenile Delinquency: This is the failure of the given person or youth to do what the law of duty requires.
Shaky Marriage: This is situation whereby a marriage is not stable as a result of constant quarrels, nagging and fighting.
Infidelity: This is lack of religious fault of partners.
Desertion: Unlawful abandonment of one spouse and children (if any) by another spouse.
Wife Abuse: Unlawful battery of wives by their husbands/spouse which may result to physical bodily harm.
Illegitimate Children: Children born out of wedlock.
Vagabonds: Children that are lacking proper home upbringing.
Spouse: Legal husband or wife.
Addiction: This is a condition of being a slave to a habit and strong inclination.
Separation: Arrangement ordered by a court of law which does end a marriage but requires married persons no longer to live together.
Truancy: This is an act to habit of staying away from school without permission.