IMPACT OF SEXUALITY EDUCATION IN REDUCING UNPROTECTED INTERCOURSE AMONG ADOLESCENTS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of the study

Sex education is enlightenment on issues to human sexuality which includes emotional relations and responsibilities, human sexual anatomy, sexual activity, sexual reproduction, reproductive health, reproductive rights, safe sex, birth control ad sexual abstinence. According to the English Dictionary, unprotected sex is an act of sexual intercourse or sodomy performed without the use of a condom, thus involving the risk of sexually transmitted diseases. It was discovered that teenage girls are 35% more likely than boys to have unprotected sex the first time they have sexual intercourse regardless of any previous sex education instruction. Boys generally have been thought to be more liable to risky behaviors, such as engaging in unprotected sex. In Nigeria, problems linked with adolescents’ sexual health comprise high rates of teenage pregnancy; a rising event of sexually transmitted diseases, high rates of abortion mortality and more. Medical problems associated with adolescents' sexual behaviour are a major health burden to Nigerians. Problems are not limited to pregnancy, it includes secondary infertility and development of cervical abnormalities in adolescents. Early and unprotected sexual activity has negative consequences for young people, adolescents precisely.
Adolescents who become sexually active often fall victim of high-risk behaviour that leads to physical and emotional damage. Each year, influenced by a combination of a youthful assumption of invincibility, and a lack of guidance, millions of adolescents ignore those risks and suffer the consequences. Young men who have sex with men are liable to HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. It was discovered that individuals infected with an STD are at least two to five times more likely than uninfected individuals to acquire HIV if exposed to the virus through sexual contact. One study found that among gay male clinic patients screened for STDs, those 15 to 20 years old had the highest age-specific rates of rectal Chlamydia and gonorrhea. Sexual activity has consequences. Though the teen birth rate has declined to its lowest levels since data collection began, the United States still has the highest teen birth rate in the industrialized world. Roughly one in four girls will become pregnant at least once by their 20th birthday. Teenage mothers are less likely to finish high school and are more likely than their peers to live in poverty, depend on public assistance, and be in poor health. Their children are more likely to suffer health and cognitive disadvantages, come in contact with the child welfare and correctional systems, live in poverty, drop out of high school and become teen parents themselves. These costs add up, according to The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, which estimates that teen childbearing costs taxpayers at least $9.4 billion annually. Comprehensive sex education programs show that these programs can help youth delay onset of sexual activity, reduce the frequency of sexual activity, reduce number of sexual partners, and increase condom and contraceptive use. Importantly, the evidence shows youth who receive comprehensive sex education are NOT more likely to become sexually active, increase sexual activity, or experience negative sexual health outcomes.    

1.2   Statement of the problem
The following are the problems of the study:
1. 35% of teenage girls have unprotected sex the first time they have sexual intercourse regardless of any sex education instruction.
2.  Youth who do not receive comprehensive sex education are more likely to become sexually active, increase sexual activity, or experience negative sexual health outcomes.  

1.3     Objectives of the study
The following are the objectives of the study:  
1. To determine whether Sex Education Intervention Programme would reduce at-risk sexual behaviours of school-going adolescents.
2. To suggest the need for effective sex education for the young ones.
3. To know if youth who receive comprehensive sex education are more likely to become sexually active, increase sexual activity, experience negative sexual health outcomes or not.  

1.4     Research questions
1. How can sex Education Intervention Programme reduce at-risk sexual behaviours of school-going adolescents in ovia local government of Edo state?  

1.5     Significance of the study
1. This research work will encourage young people to tell the truth, using computers instead of face-to-face interviews.
2. Comprehensive sex education programs show that these programs can help youth delay onset of sexual activity, reduce the frequency of sexual activity, reduce number of sexual partners, and increase condom and contraceptive use.  

1.6     Scope/Limitations of the study
The scope of this study centers on impact of sexuality education in reducing unprotected intercourse among adolescents in ovia local government of Edo state.  

Limitations of study
1. Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
2. Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.7     Definition of terms
Sex education: is enlightenment on issues to human sexuality which includes emotional relations and responsibilities, human sexual anatomy, sexual activity, sexual reproduction, reproductive health, reproductive rights, safe sex, birth control ad sexual abstinence.
Education: is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research
Sexuality: Sexuality includes our sexual orientation (heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual).
Intercourse: the act carried out for procreation or for pleasure in which, typically, the insertion of the male's erect penis into the female's vagina is followed by rhythmic thrusting usually culminating in orgasm; copulation; coitus related adjective venereal
Unprotected intercourse: unprotected sex is an act of sexual intercourse or sodomy performed without the use of a condom, thus involving the risk of sexually transmitted diseases.
Adolescents: the period between the onset of puberty and the cessation of physical growth; roughly from 11 to 19 years of age.

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